Saturday, August 31, 2019
While it is difficult to create a concrete definition of family violence or blame anyone involved in it, no one will disagree with the fact that it can be disastrous for all members of any family. The inherent complexity of such situations makes it difficult to blame any single person of the family or to underpin a particular gender as the sole guilty behind such occurrence. Therefore this study briefly explores why this issue looks so complicated and whether such complication would help to solve the situation. According to Levesque et al. (2001), family violence involves family membersÃ¢â¬â¢ acts of omission or commission that result in physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, or other forms of maltreatment, which eventually hampers healthy development of humans.Ã The above definition fairly indicates that there are many faces of family violence and it can be difficult for an outsider to identify if there is any violence ongoing in a family. However, American Academy of Family Physicians (2009), explains family violence as the Ã¢â¬Å"intentional intimidation or abuse of children, adults or elders by a family member, intimate partner or caretaker to gain power and control over the victim.Ã¢â¬ While the first definition mostly emphasizes on action, the second one stresses on intention. This adds to the complexity by highlighting the fact that family violence can take place even without the knowledge of most of the members in a family (Lau et al., 1999). For example, a father may find spanking as an effective tool to intimidate his daughter, and may intentionally does that off and on, which may not be considered as violence by her mother or other members of that family and thus such practice might continue to ruin the victimÃ¢â¬â¢s future. This is very much possible, since many acts are considered as Ã¢â¬Å"socially accepted violenceÃ¢â¬ , such as spanking, and which are not considered as Ã¢â¬Å"abusive violence,Ã¢â¬ which according to the researchers an Ã¢â¬Å"act which has a high potential for injuring the person being hitÃ¢â¬ (Straus et al, 1980, pp. 21-22). The above state of affairs shows that there is much ambiguity in pinpointing family violence which in turn points at the fact that how difficult it could be to redress it or to eliminate its occurrence. This signifies the importance of spreading awareness about the damaging potential of family violence and promoting the adoption of behavioral processes that can effectively eliminate such occurrences in a family. For example, encouraging parents to abstain from using corporal punishment to their children could be a way to lessen the instances of child abuse Ã¢â¬â because the intention behind corporal punishment, i.e., to cause pain but not injury for purposes of coercion and control (Strauss et al., 1980) may be lost with raised temper and loss of control. In all, any injury has the potential to leave a scar on human mind and thus can considerably influence the actions of the victims, which may create further problems to the society. It is from this angle, the hidden niches of family violence need to be identified and redressed, and from that perspective, humans have to go through complex discussions and debates in way of finding its solution. It is not that family violence is a new phenomenon of the society, since instances of it are spread all over in the literature of all times, and earning several sobriquets in different periods, like Ã¢â¬Å"battered child syndromeÃ¢â¬ (Kempe et al., 1962), Ã¢â¬Å"granny bashingÃ¢â¬ (Burston, 1975) or Ã¢â¬Å"battered womanÃ¢â¬ (Walker, 1979). Therefore, it is the pressing lifestyle of modern times have given it some more dimensions and accordingly, the educated minds of modern times are trying to deeply investigate its root as well as its intrinsic effects on human mind. Consequently, the perception about family violence is also gradually changing, where the earlier concept of focusing on the violence on women, children as the potential victims is making way to a newer concept that includes all humans and considers any act detrimental to human development as family violence (Pleck, 1987). Conclusion The apparent complexity in defining or determining family is actually an outcome of the honest search of the researchers that has brought forth many hidden niches of family violence. This is the right process, because the more the mechanism of family becomes clear before all, the more humans will be able to eradicate it and move towards a prosperous and happy future. References American Academy of Family Physicians. (2009). Family and intimate partner violence and abuse. Retrieved July 19, 2009, from Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/policy/policies/f/familyandintimatepartner-Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã violenceandabuse.html Burston, G. R. (1975). Granny battering. British Medical Journal, 3, 592. Kemple, C. H., Silverman, F. N., Steele, B. F., Droegemullar, W., and Silver, Hl. K. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã (1962). The battered-child syndrome. Journal of the American Medical Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Association, 181, 105-112. Lau, J. T. F., Liu, J. L. Y., Tong, C. K., and Tan, P. M. E. H. (1999). Conceptualizations, Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã reporting and under-reporting of child abuse in Hong Kong. Child Abuse & Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Neglect, 23, 1159-1174 Lavesque, D. A., Velicer, W.F., Castle, P. H., and Greene, R. N. (2008). Violence against Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã women. Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 158-164. Pleck, E. (1987). Domestic tyranny: The making of social policy against family violence from colonical times to the present. New York: Oxford University Press. Straus, M. A., Gelles, R.J., and Steinmetz, S.K. (1980). Behind closed doors: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Violence in American families. Doubleday, NewYork. Walker, L. E. (1979). The battered woman. New York: Harer Colophon Books.
Friday, August 30, 2019
The Incompatibility of Happiness and Truth Ã¢â¬â Dystopia Brave New World is full of characters who do everything they can to avoid facing the truth about their own situations. The almost universal use of the drug soma is probably the most pervasive example of such willful self-delusion. Soma clouds the realities of the present and replaces them with happy hallucinations, and is thus a tool for promoting social stability. But even Shakespeare can be used to avoid facing the truth, as John demonstrates by his insistence on viewing Lenina through the lens of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s world, first as a Juliet and later as an Ã¢â¬Å"impudent strumpet. According to Mustapha Mond, the World State prioritizes happiness at the expense of truth by design: he believes that people are better off with happiness than with truth. Soma: The drug soma is a symbol of the use of instant gratification to control the World StateÃ¢â¬â¢s populace. It is also a symbol of the powerful influence of science a nd technology on society. What are these two abstract entities that Mond juxtaposes? It seems clear enough from MondÃ¢â¬â¢s argument that happiness refers to the immediate gratification of every citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s desire for food, sex, drugs, nice clothes, and other consumer items.It is less clear what Mond means by truth, or specifically what truths he sees the World State society as covering up. From MondÃ¢â¬â¢s discussion with John, it is possible to identify two main types of truth that the World State seeks to eliminate. First, as MondÃ¢â¬â¢s own past indicates the World State controls and muffles all efforts by citizens to gain any sort of scientific or empirical truth. Second, the government attempts to destroy all kinds of Ã¢â¬Å"humanÃ¢â¬ truths, such as love, friendship, and personal connection.These two types of truth are quite different from each other: objective truth involves coming to a definitive conclusion of fact, while a Ã¢â¬Å"humanÃ¢â¬ truth can only b e explored, not defined. Yet both kinds of truth are united in the passion that an individual might feel for them. As a young man, Mustapha Mond became enraptured with the delight of making discoveries, just as John loves the language and intensity of Shakespeare. The search for truth then, also seems to involve a great deal of individual effort, of striving and fighting against odds.The very will to search for truth is an individual desire that the communal society of Brave New World, based as it is on anonymity and lack of thought, cannot allow to exist. Truth and individuality thus become entwined in the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s thematic structure. Mustapha Mond Towards the end of the novel the reader gets more information about Mustapha Mond. John, Bernard and Helmholtz are taken to his office because of the scandal in the hospital. Mustapha Mond is one of the World Controllers and responsible for Western Europe.In the conversation with John he tells him that he was interested in science some years ago and because he was too clever for the society of Brave New World he had to choose between living on an island for the rest of his life and conforming to the lifestyle in that society, which was totally rebuilt after the Nine YearsÃ¢â¬â¢ War and the Great Economic Collapse. He decided to conform and to use the chances the position of one of the World Controllers offers. Nevertheless he kept some of the books that are prohibited.When John who grew up with ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s work asks him for the reason of this prohibition, he says that the government of Brave New World doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want the people to be attracted by old things, especially books, because they should only like new things. In addition to that, the inhabitants wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand books like Ã¢â¬Å"OthelloÃ¢â¬ , because they live in totally different circumstances. They are happy, they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t afraid of anything, they get what they want and they never want what they canÃ¢â¬â¢t get.Brav e New World is a stable world and for understanding tragedies like Ã¢â¬Å"OthelloÃ¢â¬ you need social instability. John criticises that art has been given up, but Mond explains to him that this is the price you have to pay for happiness. By giving John the example of an experiment where Alphas had to do even manual work all alone, but failed, he also explains the importance of the caste system, which is necessary for stability. Later, the two men talk about God and why he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t exist in Brave New World.Mond says, that people donÃ¢â¬â¢t turn to God any longer, because they no longer have to suffer from illnesses, inconveniences, unhappiness, fears etc. so they can be independent of God and religion. John claims that God is the reason for everything noble and heroic, but Mustapha Mond tells him that there is no need for nobility or heroism, because everyone is conditioned: they canÃ¢â¬â¢t help doing what ought to be done and this is so pleasant that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t f eel the need to complain about anything.And if something unpleasant happens, there is always soma to make you happy again! Mustapha Mond is not able to convince John of his ideas and principles Ã¢â¬â in the end of their conversation John says that he claims the right to be unhappy, to become old and ugly, to have cancer and all sorts of illnesses, to have too little to eat, to be torturedÃ¢â¬ ¦. so John claims the right to live like we live now.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Conflict between Georgia and Russia about republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia (2008) - Essay Example Political explanations of the conflict usually revolve around communism while ethnicity is viewed as a cause which was naturally gratified by widespread disparities and as a natural culmination of communist repression. Moreover, it could also be argued that ethnicity as an underlying cause of the conflict is justifiable or understandable considering the existence of such groups in large numbers. Heterogeneity is viewed by some as a driving force behind widespread dissatisfaction among the public that fuelled the desire to demand a separate state. The premises that gave rise to the ethnic and cultural differences can further be attributed to the Soviet political system which rather than diffusing the causes of the conflict, in fact, ended up fuelling it further. Research suggests that historically, ethnic conflicts have lasted longer and was more frequent as compared to conflicts or wars caused due to other reasons. Furthermore, it is also established through research, which ethnically motivated conflicts are rarely solved through peaceful negotiations and usually needs to be resolved through use of military power ending in victory of either side (King 1997, p.13)1. However, the explanations to the Georgian South Ossetian conflict cannot be restricted to any one particular point of view such as ethnicity or suppression during the Soviet Union. It is in fact a result of amalgamation of various complex phenomena. The 1989 Census estimated the population of South Ossetia as 66.61% Ossetians, 29.44% Georgians and the remaining 4% as a combination of Russians, Jews and Armenians. The Ossetians accounted for 74% of the population in Tskhinvali Ã¢â¬â the administrative state of South Ossetia while the rest of the population comprised of Georgians and other groups of miscellaneous ethnicities. However, the composition of the population underwent drastic change since the onset of the conflict which led to mass migration towards the Northern Ossetian regions as
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Athletic Affiliation and Violence Against Women - Essay Example I agree with Sunday's findings in that culture plays a large role in determining the frequency of rape. I would argue that females have very little representation in high-level sport, so there is somewhat of a gender imbalance here. Sanday lists the three main causes as violence, male domination, and gender segregation. Sports such as football and hockey are violent enough already, but they also encourage male domination. Finally, females are not equally represented in these environments. If they are, in the case of football, then they are likely to be cheerleaders, which once again fulfill a stereotype that they are only there for entertainment and the pleasure of the players. Although violence against women can occur in all aspects of society, it is more likely to occur in sports because of the pressure.Ã Females are not equally represented in these environments. If they are, in the case of football, then they are likely to be cheerleaders, which once again fulfill a stereotype t hat they are only there for entertainment and the pleasure of the players. Although violence against women can occur in all aspects of society, it is more likely to occur in sports because of the pressure.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Descartes Mind Body Dualism in 6th Meditation - Essay Example Although his theory was subjected to a lot of challenges and controversies, yet philosophers mutually hold the consensus that there is a certain level of truth in the theory proposed by Descartes because we would never have felt the existence of our bodies had we never had any minds. Thus, existence of mind was fundamental to the human realization of body. This somewhat promotes the view that mind works independent of the body. The thesis proposed by Descartes is frequently referred to as the substance dualism. The thesis derives its name from its underlying ideology that emphasizes that this world is fundamentally made up of two types of substances, one materialistic and the other mental, with the former being mortal and the latter being immortal. The dual substance theory also reflects in the fact that human mind is free of the principles of nature, while all physical things abide by the principles of nature. Human thinking is quite vast. This paper evaluates the mind-body theory p roposed by Descartes. Human mind does work independent of the body but with certain restrictions. Yes, the mind can exist independent of the body, though it depends which part of the body is lost. This can be estimated from the fact that some people lose parts of their body like limbs, feet, hands in some accident and some are born with these disabilities, yet it does not decrease their mental ability in any way. In fact, in a vast majority of cases in which people suffer from a certain kind of disability, they are able to optimize on their other kinds of skills. For example, an individual that is born deaf is sharper in learning the language of signs than an individual who can hear and speak. Likewise, people that lose their foot and have to walk with the help of crutches increase their muscular strength because of the constant exercise. Hence, losing some part or parts of the body does not deprive an individual of the natural energy. In fact, the mind has the same amount of energy to exert of the remaining body parts due to which, the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in other areas improves. An individualÃ¢â¬â¢s mind would keep functioning if he/she receives a bullet in his/her hand, feet or leg. But if someone is shot in the heart, the mind would stop functioning soon thereafter because it will lose its source of blood supply. Heart purifies and pumps the blood to all parts of the body. If heart is lost, life is lost. If heart is intact, there is good chance that the individual would survive. In addition to the heart, another area that is very critical and is fundamental to the sustainability of life is the mind itself. Although human mind is a part of the body like all other parts including hands, feet and chest, yet its function is just as important as that of the human heart. Human mind sends messages to all parts of the body through electrical impulses. Therefore, if the mind is destroyed, every system inside the body would stop functioning and the ind ividual would lose life. Hence, mind can exist independently of the body to some extent, but the body can not exist without mind. Another example that proves the statement that mind can exist without body but to a certain extent is the fact that man can survive both in the space and under water, provided that he is equipped with sufficient supply of air. In the space, body loses all its weight and the man begins to float. Losing body
Monday, August 26, 2019
Insurance fraud - Essay Example Prosecutors and police refer to insurance fraud as either Ã¢â¬Å"soft fraud or hard fraudÃ¢â¬ (Bourhis 6). Hard fraud, which is rare, occurs when one commits a crime of bringing about destruction of property in order to claim compensation. Soft fraud, unlike hard, is where the insured exaggerates an otherwise legal claim or gives wrong information when applying for a policy in order to lower premiums. The most common fraud is where the value insured is more than the true value of the asset and the policyholder destroys the property and makes it look like an accident to benefit (Bourhis 7). Other fraudsters fake death to collect payments from the life policies. Health care Insurance also experience fraud cases perpetrated by either patients or physicians. Physicians commit fraud by misrepresenting treatments received by patients and patients commit fraud when they provide false information on application, loaning insurance cards and when using transport benefits for non-medical purpose (Bourhis 9). Automobile fraud occurs when insured submits a claim for false accidents, file multiple claims for one accident, claim compensation on injuries not related to automobile accident, reports exaggerated repair costs, or misreport wage losses because of injuries (Bourhis
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Dyslexia In Early Years - Essay Example This is a problem that is identifiable through observing some characteristics, such as inability to distinguish right from left. According to Robb & Piazza (2004) some simple but critical knowledge such as understanding right and left, bottom and up, high and low as well as maintaining a particular position assigned to the child in a game need to be clearly understood by the age of five years. When such problems are observed beyond this age, it is likely that the child is dyslexic. The problem is also evident among children who are unable to spell words correctly by interchanging letters, such as Ã¢â¬ËfÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËvÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËpÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËbÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËbÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËvÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËcÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËsÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËaÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËuÃ¢â¬â¢ among other letters that have some likeness.Ã This is a problem that is identifiable through observing some characteristics, such as inability to distinguish right from left. According to Robb & Pia zza (2004) some simple but critical knowledge such as understanding right and left, bottom and up, high and low as well as maintaining a particular position assigned to the child in a game need to be clearly understood by the age of five years. When such problems are observed beyond this age, it is likely that the child is dyslexic. The problem is also evident among children who are unable to spell words correctly by interchanging letters, such as Ã¢â¬ËfÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËvÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËpÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËbÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËbÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËvÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËcÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËsÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËaÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËuÃ¢â¬â¢ among other letters that have some likeness.Ã Dyslexic children usually have problems recognizing the sequence of activities, numbers and series. For example, it may be difficult to follow A-Z or 1-100. Even the sequence of letters in words may be a problem to such children, which is presents a major learning difficulty especially due to failure in spelling words correctly. For example, they may make mistakes while spelling words such as Ã¢â¬ËleadÃ¢â¬â¢ for Ã¢â¬ËdealÃ¢â¬â¢, and Ã¢â¬ËnameÃ¢â¬â¢ for Ã¢â¬ËmaneÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËleftÃ¢â¬â¢ for Ã¢â¬ËfeltÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËexceptÃ¢â¬â¢ for Ã¢â¬ËexpectÃ¢â¬â¢ among other words with the same sound. Another problem may be misplacement of syllables. Ã¢â¬ËAnimalÃ¢â¬â¢ may be spelt as Ã¢â¬ËaminalÃ¢â¬â¢, and Ã¢â¬ËactivityÃ¢â¬â¢ as Ã¢â¬ËactitivyÃ¢â¬â¢. It is also difficult for such children to recognize the backward sequence such as Y, X, W, V, U e. t. c in the alphabetical order. The child unwillingly fails to pay attention to instructions.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Health Threats From Environmental Pollutants - Research Paper Example Evaporation of seawater has increased and this has resulted in droughts in some regions, and increased rains in other areas. Such unpredictable climatic changes have posed a threat to the economic well being of the developing countries. The rapid nature of these climatic changes has generally caught mankind on the wrong foot (Victor). Food production has been adversely affected, and the sudden and unpredictable changes in the climate have increased the mortality rate amongst those who dwell in coastal areas. It is the principal objective of the Kyoto agreement to countenance these challenges. This agreement endeavors to engender better cooperation between countries, in order to reduce global warming. Nevertheless, the fact remains that the Kyoto agreement is just an initial, though significant, step in this direction and several such agreements have to be implemented (Victor). There are several factors that contribute to water pollution. There are direct and indirect contamination sources, which act as contributory causes for water contamination. For instance, the effluents from industries and factories directly contribute to water contamination. Chemical treatment plants and chemical production units are major water pollutants. These are termed as direct contamination sources. In urban areas, such direct sources contaminate drinking water. Therefore, many countries have taken stringent measures to prevent drinking water pollution. The governments of developed nations have enacted several legislations to prevent industries and factories from discharging their chemical effluents into water sources. Despite these steps, water contamination still continues in most countries (Rubin). Water is chiefly contaminated by the activities of humans.
Friday, August 23, 2019
The American Revolution - Essay Example The biography of George Washington was originally written by Mason Locke Weems who maintained a subjective approach in evaluating the facts and presented Washington as a folk hero. Although they had lived through the revolution, yet many of the early historians did not have objective grounds for their claims. A new generation of historians surfaced with the start of the 19th century. Today, whatever we know about the American Revolution is primarily an outcome of their compilation of the war events. Historians of the 19th century mutually held a consensus that the American Revolution was morally justified. They were of the view that American victory opened the gate to freedom. The determinists of the early 20th century presented the second school of thought regarding the American Revolution. They thought that the revolution revolved around the conflict of class. The economic motivations were hard to be justified with the widespread rhetoric about equality and republicanism. The determinists analyzed the revolution as more than just an endeavor to gain independence. They thought of it as a means to strengthen a ruling elite American class. The determinists base their assertions on the fact that a vast majority of the people who had signed the Declaration of Independence were rich and took the revolution as a means to strengthen their power. The third school of thought regarding the American Revolution surfaced after the Second World War. Neo-Whigs were the owners of this school of thought.