Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Chapter 4 Reaction Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Chapter 4 Reaction Paper - Essay Example So many of the things around us are constructed by our own preconceptions, but it is harder to understand how we too are a product of things beyond our control. Our roles and identities are shaped by those around us, where we come from, and we are going. All of this made the chapter an excellent and sustaining read. This reading made me very introspective. It led me to reconsider my own life and my own multiple identities. I began to try to unwind some of the strands of my personality which had led me to see myself in a certain, stable way. I began to think about how much I had changed over the years and in what direction. I have always felt that I had a lot of control over my own life and that I was master of my own destiny. But now, having read this chapter, I realize how much of everyone's lives are in flux. It is a very useful point to consider how much differences can get in the way of us recognizing how truly different some people are. The point about the French girl's uniquene ss struck a chord with me. She was so different in the small community that people had a hard time getting to know her as an individual. We must be careful not to overlook such things.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Understanding of the Old Testament Essay Example for Free

Understanding of the Old Testament Essay To what extent does archaeology inform us about our understanding of the Old Testament? The Jewish scriptures that made up the Old Testament were written over a period of a hundred years during a time when the Israelites were established and prosperous, but also during the times when the whole religion and lifestyle were under threat throughout exiles and national crises. Biblical scholars study the evidence within the scriptures themselves and also use other resources such as prehistoric documents and archaeological findings in order to inform us more thoroughly about the Old Testament. Archaeology is a modern science calling for much patience and skill. Generally speaking there are three kinds of archaeology. The first is ruins of buildings, homes, temples and fortifications. These reveal culture, worship, social structure and manner of life. The second is artefacts, pots, lamps, weapons and ornaments. These reveal something about wealth and culture. The third is inscriptions, also known as epigraphic material. This reveals what people wrote about. We have to be cautious about what archaeology can prove. From reading ancient texts, scholars can not always tell whether it is true or not. We can simply tell what the writer of the text wanted the world to believe. Archaeology can help to provide evidence that an event happened, but it cannot always show why it happened nor who was involved. Therefore it is most useful for corroboration. Through archaeology scholars can discover more about the times in which people in the Bible lived. What importance did they have as a nation among other nations? What were their everyday lives like? What animals did they keep? What did they eat? How did they trade? What were their social habits and family interactions? What was the nature of the other religions by which they were surrounded when Judaism was first beginning and much more? One of the main reasons scholars look for archaeological evidence is due to an issue that causes the most controversy- whether the events described really happened. For many people who are strong believers this is not an issue for them as the Bible, which is the Word of God is thought to them to be more true than any other foundation of information, so therefore the events portrayed in the Bible are true to them. If there is no outside evidence to support this, or discoveries of scholars contradict what the Bible says, then the Bible remains true to the believers as the people investigating the evidence are thought to be able to be fallible whereas for the believers, the Bible is not. Many people are also willing to accept that some of the Bibles accounts are true in a theological rather than a historical sense. However, it is argued that the accuracy of the historical accounts might have been sacrificed in order to put emphasis on the theological point. It is very difficult for events in the Old Testament to be accurately dated for many reasons. The main reason is that many of the written records have not survived. This is because many of the texts were written on insubstantial materials and the climate was not particularly dry and therefore could not preserve the texts. Another reason is that much of the Old Testament originated as oral traditions rather than written, which means whilst being passed on from one person to another, the real translation could have sometimes been changed through misunderstanding or false impression. This makes it extremely difficult for scholars to work out which parts are historically correct and which are not as elements may have been removed or added. Texts occasionally referred to features which were thought to be of a later date than the story itself and therefore scholars have to decide if the older parts of a narrative were correct or had been altered. Biblical writers also often exaggerated wha t was written in order to express that someone was particularly blessed by God. This means scholars have to make informed guesses where they do not know facts, which means they can easily make mistakes in accuracy as well as writing according to their own biases. A final reason why the Bible cannot be accurately dated is because Biblical writers primary purpose was not to write an accurate historical record. Their main interest was to illustrate the relationship between God and humanity, particularly the relationship between God and his chosen people, Israel. This meant important rulers and political events of global importance, which could give the Bible definite dates if they were mentioned in the texts, were ignored because they did not show any relevance for religious faith. Some people dispute that a date from the Bible can be found using the text itself as many do believe the Bible is historically accurate and reliable as the Bible is inspired by God. However, for many scholars this is thought to be very unreliable. As well as using documents to attempt to place the Bible in historical context, archaeologists have searched for evidence of the existence of cities and buildings mentioned in Biblical stories. Since the First World War, scholars have used archaeology to discover more reliable sources about events that were said to have happened in the Old Testament. For example, excavations on the southern bank of the river Euphrates in Syria revealed the existence of a city called Mari. From this city, archaeologists found cuneiform (wedge-shaped writing of ancient civilisations) tablets dating from the nineteenth and eighteenth centuries BC. They provided a wealth of information containing economic factors which helped scholars to understand the ways in which people lived in the Middle Bronze Age. In the past, thousands of tablets covered with cuneiform have been discovered. They provide information about the Biblical world before 100 BC. After that time alphabets with letters not made up of combinations of triangles begin to emerge and we are on our way to the Hebrew script known to Biblical scholars. Names found through archaeology can provide more clues to the dating or geographical setting of particular events in the Old Testament because when scholars find evidence of other people with comparable names to those of characters in the Bible, it can suggest a background for the Biblical writings. To conclude, archaeology can help to inform us more about events that happened in the Old Testament and help us understand what happened and who was involved more than we already do. However, we cannot always rely on archaeology to inform our understanding of the Old Testament as archaeologists and scholars do not always know the truth behind evidence found, they are only able to use what they see with their own eyes and make educated guesses with what they already know.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Observation Essay †The Clown -- Observation Essays

Observation Essay – The Clown He’s a young man, the clown, with white socks striped in black, and black suspenders over a white T-shirt. White face, red nose. His MO is to follow people and imitate their motion without their noticing, to the glee of the sizeable, ever-changing audience. We’re sitting here on the steps of the Museum, hot and sweaty, watching the show. The clown can follow anyone: a slinky woman wearing pink ruffles, a kid with a mountain bike, a muscle-shirted dude talking Spanish on a cell phone, an old man walking his schnauzer, a big gray pigeon bobbing this way and that in search of food, and then taking flight. Now he slides behind high-school girlfriends, floppy-sandaled flirts leaning toward each other and flinging back their hair with unthinking charm, the clown their vampy shadow. When he bids them goodbye, he flourishes a soft, velvet-bodied top hat, and you can see his head is shaven, except for a forelock. Now he’s got a routine with a bottle of water. It’s stuck in his mouth and silently he implores a guy to get it out for him. He has a way of getting sudden spurts of water to cascade from it, while he looks surprised and delighted at once. I have persuaded my friend Kati to leave me here for an hour in the afternoon sun while she completes her tour of the Impressionists inside. She’s in New York this once, visiting from Hungary, while I live in Philadelphia and can come back any time I choose. I became hot and dizzy while standing on a Rouen street, basking in the sun before Monet’s Cathedral. A red tide rose inside my eyeballs. Kati found me clinging to a bench in front of Seurat’s Circus Sideshow and hauled me off to the Ladies’ Room, where she sprinkled cool water on my neck an... ...e gently, informing me that I have a virus, melodramatic old fool that I am. The clown has taken his place at the foot of the stairs and conducts us spectators like an orchestra, getting us to applaud in counterpoint. Then he mimes a family, three kids, all of whom need to eat and drink, and proffers his floppy hat for our sustenance. When I hold out two dollars, he comes over and mimes opening the doors of his chest, so that the heart within flutters out to me. Kati comes and we head home, our minds full of the art we saw today. As I rise from my spot on the steps, I see the clown shadow a man walking six dogs all at once, working his body back and forth on the leash of the unruliest, a sheep-dog. Then he takes a bottle of water offered by a vendor and puts it in his ear. Water squirts from his mouth, and he smiles, looking briefly skyward, one hand on his hip.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Explanations of East Asian Economic Development

The economic success of the East Asian countries has inspired many economists to study the background of their rapid growth. Interestingly, different economists interpret this success in entirely different ways. During the 1970s and an important part of the 1980s advocates of the neoclassical model argued that growth in East Asia was the result mainly of the market mechanism and the emphasis on export promotion in these countries. Especially since the mid-1980s the neoclassical approach was criticised by economists who stressed that government intervention played a crucial role in the process of economic growth. This paper aims at presenting a survey of the arguments recently put forward by the critics of the neoclassical approach to explain the role of government in the economic success of the countries in East Asia. Such a survey is very useful, since it forms a new breeding ground for the discussion on the role of the government in the economic development of other Developing countries and the countries in Eastern Europe. Without a doubt East Asia’s economic expansion during the past twenty years is one of the most remarkable economic changes since the Second World War. Gross national product of the East Asian countries increased by more than five per cent per year in the period 1965-1990, which is considerably larger than that of Latin America (1. 8 per cent), sub-Saharan Africa (0. 3 per cent), or even the OECD (2. 4 per cent). Six of the seven fastest growing economies in the period 1960-1985 (measured on the basis of the average growth of per capita GDP) were East Asian countries. The economic success of these countries has inspired many economists to study the background of this rapid growth. What is rather remarkable in this context is the fact that different economists interpret this success in entirely different ways. During the 1970s and an important part of the 1980s advocates of the neoclassical model argued that growth in East Asia was the result mainly of the market mechanism and the emphasis on export promotion in these countries. This interpretation dominated the debate for a long time. Especially since the mid-1980s the neoclassical approach was criticised by economists who stressed that government intervention actually played a crucial role in the process of economic growth. In this paper these economists are referred to as the new interventionists. The debate between the neoclassical economists and the new interventionists seems to concentrate on the issue concerning the role of the government in the process of economic development in general and the East Asian growth miracle in particular. In this article East Asia includes the following countries: Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia. A significant part of the literature used for this article concentrates mainly on South Korea and Taiwan. This paper mainly aims at presenting a survey of the arguments recently put forward by the critics of the neoclassical approach to explain the economic success of the countries in East Asia. In particular, it emphasises their view with respect to the role of the government in the process of economic development. Such a listing of the contributions of the new interventionists concerning the backgrounds of the Asian miracle and the possible contribution of the government is very useful The article is structured as follows. Section 2 presents a survey of the contributions of development economists with respect to the role of the government in the process of economic development as put forward by them in the 1940s and 1950s. Section 3 describes the reactions of the neoclassical economists on these early contributions. They emphasised that especially the market mechanism played an important role in the growth of the East Asian countries. Section 4 deals with the critics of the neoclassical economists and describes their approach to the backgrounds of the Asian miracle. The discussion on the role of the government in the process of economic development originated in the 1940s and 1950s, this discussion fits into the post-war predominance of Keynesian economics. During this period several theoretical models contributions in the literature pointed out that market imperfections justified government intervention. The main emphasis was on the existence and benefits of economies of scale and the external effects of production. One of the most influential models was the model of industrialisation based on the notion of infant industry. The existence of dynamic economies of scale and positive external effects of production in certain industries prompted the government to actively stimulate the development of these industries since the private sector was thought to be incapable of assessing the long-term economic benefits of investing in these industries. According to this model the government would stimulate the development of these industries by means of subsidies and protective measures until they were sufficiently developed to produce without government support. Other models went further in their recommendations concerning the role of the government in development. According to several economists, the economic growth potential of developing countries was restricted since many of these countries mainly exported primary goods. They expected that the prices of these goods relative to prices of industrial goods would fall permanently; this is also known as export pessimism. By combining the infant industry argument with export pessimism they pointed out that a structural change in the production structure of these countries was absolutely necessary in order to obtain positive long-run economic growth prospects. The government ought to play an important role since such a drastic change could never be realised through the market mechanism due to considerably large coordination problems in the economy. The emphasis was put on improving infrastructure and education. Both these aspects were assumed to be extremely important in order to realise such a structural change. Furthermore, the mutual dependence of industries was pointed out: the development of one industry was also determined by the development of other sectors, either as a producer of inputs4 or as a demander of output. This caused simultaneous support of different industries necessary. Later on, the debate in literature concentrated on the way in which the government ought to intervene. Some supported simultaneous intervention in all industries essential to economic growth; others stressed the limited availability of scarce resources which would hinder the execution of such a comprehensive strategy. They advocated government intervention mainly in those industries that had the most relations with other industries (unbalanced growth strategy; see Hirschman, 1958). These models very much influenced the economic policies pursued by the various developing countries during the 1950s, 1960s, and a large part of the 1970s. The idea of a government intervening in the process of economic growth was appealing to many politicians. It contributed to developing models of central planning, and it stimulated to using trade policies, such as import quota, export subsidies, and fixed exchange rates, introducing price controls and subsidies in markets for goods and production factors, and establishing public enterprises in important sectors like mining and heavy industries. Many governments pursued policies of import substitution (and later also export promotion). Initially, several countries appeared to be successful in achieving economic growth by way of government intervention. However, as increasingly more problems arose with respect to the models of planned economic growth, this approach was increasingly criticised by economists whose ideas matched the neoclassical tradition. This is the term to which they are referred to in the debate on the role of markets versus the Government in the process of growth. Mainly at the fact that the above described models primarily pointed at the imperfections of the market mechanism; the models seemed not to be concerned about the possibility that government intervention in itself could also lead to an inefficient allocation of resources. The neoclassical economists rejected the implicit assumptions that allocate inefficiency due to market imperfections would always be larger than the inefficiency resulting from government failures. This assumption would imply that the government has sufficient information in order to determine for which particular industries positive externalities and dynamic economies of scale could be expected, and to properly assess the costs and benefits of supporting certain activities and industries. This also would imply a well-functioning apparatus of government within which this information would be translated into a policy in the right way. Moreover, it meant that the government would also be strong enough to resist pressure groups and to minimalize the negative effects of rent-seeking behaviour. Finally, it was anticipated that the government put maximum welfare for the country as a whole before maximising the individual objectives of those representing the government. The neoliberals very much doubted the fact that these conditions had been sufficiently met in developing countries. They were rather convinced of the fact that especially such factors as lobbying, rent seeking, and a government pursuing maximisation of the individual welfare function, would negatively affect the efficiency of intervention. Therefore, they concluded that the imperfections of government intervention generally exceeded market imperfections. Only in some cases the government could play a role, e. g. with respect to providing physical infrastructure, macroeconomic stability, and maintaining order and upholding the law. This is all the government should do. The device of getting the prices right plays a crucial role in the neoliberal view: If the markets are not interfered with, scarce resources will be allocated most efficiently. Their starting points were the basis of the IMF and World Bank policy. Recommendations that were part of the structural adjustment programmes presented to developing countries in the 1980s and 1990s. The neoliberal interpretation of the role of the government versus the role of the market in the process of economic development has also been applied in analysing the economic success of East Asia of the past three decades. According to the neoliberals, the governments of these countries observed the limits of their capabilities, and the economic success, therefore, was caused mainly by the market which functioned quite well. They especially pointed out the emphasis governments placed on developing and stimulating exports, private entrepreneurship, and the execution of market-oriented policy measures. Focusing on export enhanced the development of industries with a comparative advantage. The East Asian countries especially developed those industries in which they had a comparative advantage. The governments had created the right environment – by providing macroeconomic stability and public investment in social and physical infrastructure – in which the private sector was encouraged to invest in such a way that it, would contribute positively to economic development. The neoliberal interpretation of the economic success of the East Asian countries was supported by the observation that several African and Latin American countries, where the government had played a very significant role for several decades, had experienced a deep economic crisis since the 1980s. The failure of government intervention and the positive contributions of the market mechanism were elaborately discussed in studies by, among others, these studies considered the East Asian countries as examples of countries where the market mechanism had positively influenced the process of economic development. The neoliberal criticism of the models from the 1940s and 1950s was justified to a certain extent. They rightly emphasised that too much government interference in the process of economic development could lead to considerable inefficiencies. They provided a theoretical basis for the possibility and consequences of government failure (Islam, 1992). Since the early 1970s and especially during the 1980s practically everybody agreed on the fact that government-led economic development, with an important role for state enterprises, would lead to large inefficiencies. However, this did not automatically mean that the neoliberal alternative provided a correct interpretation of the backgrounds of the successes in East Asia. Since the mid-1980s there was increasing criticism of the neoliberal interpretation of the role of the market versus the role of the government in development. These critics can be referred to as new interventionists. This group of economists argued that the government could contribute more to economic development than just providing certain important public goods. They based their ideas mainly on their analysis of the backgrounds of economic success in East Asia. The centre of their analysis proved to have rather a lot in common with the analyses of and themes addressed by development economists of the 1940s and 1950s. Criticism of the Neoliberal Model and the Arguments in Favour of Government Intervention According to the new interventionists, the neoliberal interpretation could not explain satisfactorily the success of the East Asian countries. A growing amount of research showed that government could indeed contribute positively to growth by means of comprehensive intervention in the economic process. This was not in keeping with the usual neoliberal starting points, and therefore alternative approaches were sought after to explain for this finding. An important alternative explanation of the East Asian economic success was found by emphasising the extent of problems concerning coordination in less developed economies. Critics of the neoliberal interpretation pointed out that the government could play an important role in stimulating the process of economic development by reducing coordination problems, related to the hoice of and relationship between production decisions that hinder development. These problems concerning coordination are the result of dynamic economies of scale of production and external effects resulting from the strong mutual dependence of certain industries. If such circumstances do play a role, the allocation of resources on the basis of the market mechanism can quite easily become sub-optimal. To begin with, in practice market prices provide information abou t the current profitability of productive activities; they contain hardly any – if at all – information on future profitability. Under these circumstances, if there are any activities that lead to economies of scale in the future, current market prices give the wrong signals with respect to optimal allocation. In this case, allocation will not be dynamically efficient. Moreover, investment decisions at the level of the individual entrepreneur may be sub-optimal if the future profitability of an investment project also depends on the degree to which investments are made in other sectors at the same time. In this case, too, allocation of resources based on the free market principle results in dynamically inefficient allocation. According to the new interventionists, interventions of East Asian governments were mainly aimed at decreasing these coordination problems, thus stimulating economic growth. The interventions actually improved the economy since barriers caused by economies of scale and external effects were taken down, which probably would not have happened if resource allocation was based purely on market principles. The model explaining the East Asian economic miracle as proposed by these new interventionists matches some of the central thoughts of the development economists of the 1940s and 1950s. One major difference, however, is that this model is formalised in some recent contributions. Recent theories on industrial organisation also point at the positive effect of limited competition – rather than free markets – and protection and co-ordination by the government. The remainder of this section will discuss in more detail several of the above mentioned aspects of the East Asian intervention policy, such as the characteristics of industrial policies, the instruments that were used to stimulate specific investments, the institutional context, and the preconditions. Industrial policy The contents and effectiveness of the industrial policies pursued in the East Asian countries is the central focus of several new interventionist studies, Focusing mainly on the analysis of the Korean experiences, this is also presents a new interventionist interpretation of the economic development of South Korea. In her analysis she shows why the Korean government policy can be considered dynamically efficient. She emphasises the fact that government intervention led to a situation of getting the prices wrong, which, according to her, precisely resulted in an optimal allocation of scarce resources. By deliberately disturbing prices, the government was able to reduce the coordination problems that occur when allocation of resources is left to the market mechanism. Policies aiming at disturbing the market mechanism led to other priorities concerning what should be produced as compared to the outcomes of the market as the coordinating mechanism. The industrial policies of other rapid growers in the region have been interpreted in a similar manner in other studies; characterises the process of economic development in South Korea as the process of late industrialisation. Fast growth in this country is mainly based on the implementation of existing (Western) technologies. The aspect of learning, adopting and adjusting existing technologies is central in her analysis. Since learning processes have the characteristics of a public good and are for example, closely related to increasing economies of scale and the external effects of production, government intervention is vital in the process of late industrialisation. The government sees to it that the Western technology is copied and implemented as efficiently as possible, and that the labour force is educated sufficiently to work with the new technology. Moreover, they coordinate production decisions in different industries. Thus, the government becomes an entrepreneur who decides what, when, and how much to produce. The active intervention resulted in the industrial development of South Korea, which would not have been realised without government intervention. The government especially stimulated those industries that were thought to be of crucial importance to the long-term development of South Korea. Whereas in the 1960s mainly export-oriented industries were stimulated, in the 1970s emphasis was placed on the development of heavy and chemical industries, the electronics industry, and shipbuilding. In the 1980s the centre of attention of industrial policies shifted towards stimulating the development of high-quality industries, the so-called sunrise industries. Due to government intervention South Korea became a leading producer of microchips, and had an important share in the world markets for consumer electronics, cars, and in shipbuilding. In this context, leading economists point out the difficulties involved in the development of especially heavy and chemical industries, and in electronics and shipbuilding. The relatively long time these industries require reaching maturity, and the limited profitability (or even temporary loss) during the initial phase cause these industries to be rather unattractive when it comes to private investment. This provides a legitimate reason for an active industrial policy by the government. Instruments of government intervention The East Asian governments used various instruments that enabled them to influence the organisation of production decisions and the allocation of production factors, in order to achieve that scarce resource would be applied in the areas they preferred. These instruments primarily aim at creating rents, i. e. providing subsidies for certain investments. A subsidy may be a strong instrument to influence the use and allocation of means; provided that the granting meets certain conditions. A subsidy will contain a protective element on the one hand, and provide an incentive to implement specific activities on the other hand. Given these conditions, a subsidy may contribute to the fact that investors who are granted a subsidy may take into account more than short-term profitability only, and may also consider future possible profitability of the decisions. In these cases, the dynamic aspects of implementing investment decisions are taken into account, and thus granting subsidies may contribute to a better allocation of means. Initially, subsidies were granted by means of programmes for cheap credit and selective credit loans. In countries like South Korea and Taiwan, the government had a significant impact on determining the nominal deposit and loan rate in the 1960s and 1970s. Moreover, they also introduced guidelines with respect to the allocation of bank loans to the private sector. Thus, they were able to stimulate the development of specific industries and private activities by granting them access to external funding and by subsidising this Funding. The role of the export promotion policy Especially with respect to the role of export-oriented policies as part of industrial policies, and the related specific instruments of government intervention in East Asia, the neoliberals and the new interventionists do not agree. In the neoliberal model the emphasis of government policies on export promotion is very important, since they believe that competition on world markets stimulated East Asian companies to produce efficiently. They exported especially those products for which the countries had a comparative advantage in production. According to the neoliberals, the rapid growth of exports justified this approach. Subsequently, the development of export industries was thought to have a positive effect on the production in other sectors of the economy. In this model – the so-called model of export-led development – the rapid growth of the export industries led to a growth in investment and was therefore the driving force behind the overall economic success. The new interventionists disputed the neoliberal point of view. Some of them point out the fact that the governments created comparative advantages, thus actually reversing the causal relationship between export growth and14 comparative advantages. The above mentioned industrial policies in South Korea can again be used to illustrate this view. The South Koreans developed advantages in shipbuilding, and in the electronics and car industries, all industries in which they initially did not have comparative advantages. Some new interventionists stressed the fact that government intervention stimulated especially those export industries for which competition in international markets was fierce, in order to stimulate the building up of a competitive external sector. To a certain degree, this view resembles the neoliberal interpretation of the role of international trade, although the new interventionists put much more weight into the role of government intervention to develop such a competitive external sector. They argue that international competition can be regarded as an efficiency check of interventionist policies and the policy measures used. The success or failure of export producing firms provided the government with information which enabled it to decide whether or not to continue support to particular industries, and to decide on the extent of this support. Thus, protection measures and the granting of subsidies were linked to the performance of firms with regard to the development of sales in foreign markets. Others, however, resist the argument that exports played a crucial role in stimulating the economic growth of these countries. On the one hand, they point at the limited share of the export sector in total GNP of most East Asian growing countries in the period concerned. Considered this limited share, this sector could never have been the driving force behind the strong economic development during the 1960s and 1970s. On the other hand, the direction of the causality between exports and investments as supposed by the neoliberals is questioned. It is more likely that the explosive export growth was the result of a strong increase in domestic investments, rather than the other way round. The increase in these investments led to an increasing demand for imports, which – taking into account the limited availability of foreign currencies – went hand in hand with an increase in exports. This increase in exports was realised by reducing the domestic consumption of tradable goods, making them available for exports. Exports were not hampered by any unfavourable exchange rate policies, which had indeed been the case in many other developing countries in the 1960s, 1970s, and part of the 1980s. They argue that export production was actively stimulated by means of several instruments, particularly the above described systems of subsidisation. Therefore, some new interventionists argue that the explanation of economic growth in East Asian countries lies in the factors that influenced the strong growth in domestic investments, such as the creation of rents to stimulate investment behaviour. Cooperation between the state and the private sector in the previous sections it has been pointed out continuously that the East Asian governments proved to be able to reduce coordination problems, which contributed to stimulate economic growth. However, this still has not answered the question concerning the way governments were able to dispose of sufficient information to efficiently coordinate investment decisions and to determine which industries were important in realising a dynamically efficient allocation of scarce resources. Several studies have examined this aspect. These studies show that very close ties existed between the government, banks, and the private sector. These ties led to frequent contacts between the government and the private sector about the economy’s weaknesses and strengths. In this way, the government gained a better understanding of the nature of the coordination problems that played a role in the economy. On the basis of this information the government was better able to take decisions concerning intervention. In the case of South Korea, civil servants from different ministries, bank managers, and managers of large companies regularly met on so-called deliberation councils. Apart from this there were also monthly export meetings. At these meetings, presided by the president of the country and attended by16 senior civil servants, managers of banks and companies, economic bottlenecks were directly discussed, and decisions were taken concerning the outlines of the industrial, trade, and financial policies. Specific attention would be paid to the performance of the export industries, and if necessary the export policy would be adjusted on the basis of the information available. The South Korean private sector was very much organised on the basis of conglomerate structures, the so-called Chaebols. A limited number of very large conglomerates were actively involved in various economic activities, thus controlling an important part of the total production of the private sector. The government actively stimulated the development of these large conglomerates. The idea was that this would lead to an optimal use of economies of scale and external effects due to the strong mutual dependence between industries. In this way, the conglomerates would internalise existing coordination problems. Moreover, an advantage of the existence of several large conglomerates was that there were only a small number of ties between the government and the private sector, so that a relatively small number of policy makers and managers would be responsible for making important decisions. This added to an efficient exchange of information and a reduction of coordination problems. Some studies describe the model of the East Asian economies as a governed market. This means that private companies competed and cooperated and were supervised by the government. Other studies – especially referring to the case of South Korea – characterise the relations between government and the private sector as a quasi-internal organisation. This model describes a firm as an organisation that minimalizes transaction costs by internalising certain activities, i. e. hese activities are executed within the organisation. This may cause the allocation within an internal organisation to be superior to allocation resulting from the market mechanism. The model contains a central management that determines the outlines of the activities of the firm and that delegates the execution and immediate responsibility for the results to different divisions. The divisions are accountable to th e central management and have to provide information regularly, enabling the management to change its strategy on the basis of this new information – if necessary. In this way, coordination problems between the different activities can be reduced. The comparison to the characteristics of the Korean society applies to a certain extent, if the government is regarded as the central manager and the various conglomerates as the divisions. Due to the intense and informal contacts between the government and the private sector, the government had at their disposal information concerning the nature and extent of coordination problems in the economy. On the basis of this information, economic policies could be designed and choices could be made on which industries should be supported, since they were supposed to be of crucial importance to the growth of the country. Furthermore, economic policy programmes could constantly be adjusted on the basis of new information so that they would positively contribute to the economic development of the country. To conclude, it can be argued that the strong ties between the government and the private sector contributed to an intense exchange of information. Based on this information, the government was able to follow and if necessary adjust the activities in private industries. The new interventionists considered the combination of these ties and the nature of the way the government created rents and distributed these among firms and industrial sectors as an important explanation of the successful government intervention in the various East Asian countries. Initial conditions and political factors The new interventionists also point at other factors they feel have been important in realising that the government translated the information they eceived from the private sector into a policy that contributed to the successful18 reduction of coordination problems. These factors are closely related to the initial conditions that applied at the moment this miraculous process of economic growth was started. They also point at certain specific political economic circumstances. To begin with, the new interventionists emphasise that in these count ries the educational system and the level of education of the labour force were of a relatively high standard as early as the 1950s, especially compared to countries in Latin America and Africa. This positive initial condition had various positive consequences. To start with, this meant that labour productivity was relatively high and that the East Asian economies were at least capable of working with relatively high-grade production processes as early as the 1950s. Moreover, this meant that the copying of Western technologies is the essence of late industrialisation – could be executed faster. Finally, the high level of education had a positive effect on the quality of the civil service. The latter was not to be underestimated as an aspect of the success of the East Asian intervention policy. Several authors have therefore paid special attention to the aspect of the quality of the civil service. An efficient apparatus of government was of great importance in order to translate the information on coordination problems in the economy into a policy that could contribute to increasing economic growth. Moreover, the work ethic of the average civil servant in the Eastern Asian countries was also important in explaining the efficiency of government intervention. In many developing countries civil servants seemed to be easily corrupted, whereas in most East Asian countries this was relatively less common. Consequently, the abuse of, for example, the granting of subsidies and other benefits to firms could be kept rather limited. To explain this phenomenon the new interventionists argued, among other things that in such countries as South Korea and Taiwan a high degree of social responsibility had been developed and introduced through the educational system. Education very much contributed to a sense of social awareness. This led to the fact that a position as a civil servant involved a high social status. This may be an explanation for the fact that the best students often accepted a19 position with the government whereas a similar position in the private sector would pay far more. This high status would also contribute to a lower degree of corruptness as compared to that in many other developing countries. Moreover, a career with the civil service was considered the perfect way to a high position in the private sector. Apart from these initial conditions, several authors argue that the political economic circumstances in the East Asian countries contributed to the fact that government intervention could concentrate on the efficient use of scarce resources. As is well-known from the public-choice literature, a government may implement a policy because they are being pressurised by certain groups in society that are crucial to a possible re-election. In such case, in their policy the government may to a certain extent want to comply with the wishes of their future voters, rather than pursue a policy that contributes to economic growth as much as possible. 9 For example, they may not use subsidies to support certain important economic activities; instead subsidies may be used to secure political support. In many Latin American and African countries such a populist policy has been pursued in the past with all the associated negative consequences to general economic growth. In case of a more autocratic government, the government will use part of the means available to bribe representatives of powerful lobbies who could jeopardise the government’s continuity or to forcefully suppress these lobbies. In South Korea and Taiwan the government hardly ever faced lobbies of real importance so that a populist policy was not necessary. Therefore, they could develop and pursue their policies independent of any lobby and they could efficiently employ subsidies and other instruments to promote economic growth, rather than use them in order to gain political support. There were several different reasons for this particular circumstance, according to the new interventionists. Among others, for an empirical analysis of such kind of political economic processes, to start with, countries like South Korea and Taiwan were characterised by a relatively equal income distribution due to which the governments of these countries were less pressurised into taking popular measures to please certain lobbies. The equal income distribution was mainly the result of the land reforms of the 1950s which took place both in South Korea and Taiwan. Thus, equal income distribution had been realised before the start of the period of rapid growth. More recently, empirical support for the positive relation between equal income distribution and economic growth has been found. Moreover, some mention the fact that both the South Korean and the Taiwanese society were characterised by a relatively cultural unity, This meant that this potential source of political instability was less strong than it often was in other developing countries and that this made it easier to develop a solid nation state. Some authors also mention the fact that the Japanese oppression of South Korea before 1945 drastically reduced the role of lobbies in this country. With respect to Taiwan, the flight of political leaders and their supporters from China had actually decimated the differences between the various political lobbies. Finally, there was no elite based on the ownership of natural resources, since these countries hardly had any natural resources. In several Latin American countries this elite was an important opponent of the government. The new interventionists offer an alternative explanation for the economic success of the East Asian countries during the past few decades. They point at the existence of coordination problems and argue that these problems are the main obstacle for economic development. For this reason the government should play an active role. The analysis of the role of the government in East Asia shows under which circumstances government intervention may have a positive impact on the economic growth of a country. The contributions by the new interventionists appear to resemble those by the development economists21 from the 1940s and 1950s. The difference, however, is that the new interventionists have provided the understandings of the development economists with a more solid theoretical and empirical basis. Some questions remain unanswered, however. For example, the new interventionist analysis of the role of the government in the East Asian success has not convincingly shown why the efforts of the governments of these countries seemed to have been explicitly concentrated on promoting long-term economic development. This paper has described all conditions that must be met in order for government intervention to contribute positively to economic growth, as was the case in East Asia. Another starting point for future research refers to the empirical foundation of the existence, nature and importance of coordination problems in a less developed economy. Although the new interventionists have frequently and convincingly described the existence of these failures, until now their empirical proof has been scarcely provided. Therefore, micro-level research – i. e. t the industrial level – into the significance of these coordination problems in economic development is vital. Related to this, more empirical research ought to be conducted into the importance of dynamic efficiency in a less developed economy. This requires more analysis of the nature of the possible economies of scale, the external effects in such economies, and the way in which they could be exploited by government interventi on. The debate on the role of the government was quite explicit after the World Bank had published a study in 1993 which contained an in-depth analysis of the backgrounds of the East Asian success. The new interventionists criticised the World Bank for the contents of this report ,the analysis in this report builds on an earlier World Bank report (World Bank, 1991) in which the neoliberal view on the role of the government is somewhat changed with respect to their previous attitude on this subject. Both the 1991 and 1993 reports assign a more positive role to government intervention. The reports argue that interventions may add to economic growth, provided that these interventions are market friendly. The market friendly nature of interventions means that markets ought to function freely, unless the results are clearly better in case of government intervention. Furthermore, checks and balances have to be introduced: interventions must always be subject to the discipline of the domestic and foreign markets as much as possible. Finally, intervention must be straightforward and transparent, based on clear regulations, so that the contents and consequences can be monitored by anyone. The 1991 World Bank report introduces the market friendly approach of government policy as the alternative road between market and government. Starting from this analysis framework, the 1993 report studies the economic development of East Asia and endorse the positive role of the government in the process of economic development of these countries. Furthermore, the report argues that the distortions that were a result of government interventions were small, especially as compared to those in other developing countries. Government policies were often embedded in a competitive environment, all according to the market friendly approach. At the same time, however, the analysis shows that government intervention was by no means always successful. The market is considered to remain the most efficient coordinating mechanism. Therefore, the report’s advice is to get the prices right. The final conclusion is that the most important positive contributions of government intervention referred to creating a stable macroeconomic environment – in the form of low inflation and government deficits, and a stable exchange rate – and investment in the development of human capital. The government created the right environment within which private initiative could optimally contribute to economic growth. Economic policies should concentrate on these factors, the World Bank argues. The recent World Bank report does only partly do justice to the new interventionist’s criticism. The policy recommendations still seem to be rather neoliberal. Although the World Bank report initially appears to lead to a synthesis of the neoliberal model and the new interventionist understandings, the policy implications of the analysis of the two camps differ very much. The new interventionists point at the importance of government intervention and set great store by industrial policies and the use of subsidies and other instruments in order to realise a dynamically efficient allocation of resources, whereas the World Bank continues to argue that the government ought to aim mainly at creating macroeconomic stability and should aim solely at creating the right conditions for private initiative. Conclusion To conclude, since the early 1990s there appears to be some general agreement concerning the debate on the role of the government in the process of economic development in East Asian countries. The World Bank – being the main representative of the neoliberal point of view – and its critics agree on the fact that the governments of these countries severely intervened in the economic process. Thus, it would make great sense for developing nations in Africa, South America and south East Asia to place prodigious importance of state intervention to economic development and to dismay the western â€Å"liberal† model as useless and deceptive. As they themselves (western countries, including Japan) all at some point in their economic development guided their economy towards what they thought was suitable and progressive, which is called â€Å"industrialisation†.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Compare the ways in which each author Essay

â€Å"With the deep, unconscious sigh which not even the nearness of the telescreen could prevent him from uttering when his days work started. † In part two Winston’s love for Julia develops and his partaking in the resistance against Big Brother increases. Winston explores new emotions of love, however, we sense their failure through capture, as other party members must notice the rebellion. Part three is Winston’s punishment from his capture, where he receives a broken spirit. Both part two and three mimic each other through cause and effect as Winston’s party life develops. You can witness the change in the character by comparing the previous quotation with this example from part two, which has a cheerful tone. â€Å"The relief of seeing her was so great that he could not resist staring directly at her for several seconds† During Orwell’s structure there is no sense of time, where one day begins and ends, this is the opposite to ‘The Handmaids Tale’ because her sections are split into the structure of time but not the date. One opinion of ‘The Handmaids Tale’ is that it is a feminist novel. Critics say the women in this novel are as in today’s society, â€Å"treated as property and not human beings†. I agree with that this novel contains many feminist concerns. However personally I have not had the experience of feminism like Atwood has, so I do not believe that the majority of women are treated badly in today’s society. When Orwell’s 1984 was first released some critics read it as a negative view of the Soviet Union, this lead communists to believe that Orwell had distorted the publics view the unions achievements. In my opinion, readers may have over reacted, although I believe that Orwell wanted to draw attention to the society around him and how it could develop if no one unattended the problem. Each author’s background influenced their writings of their dystopia. Atwood, when constructing this novel was witnessing the world at a high point of radical feminism. Protests increased about abortions, the right to keep your maiden name after marriage and equal rights for women and men. All these activities had a great influence on Atwood and are portrayed through two characters. Offred’s friend Moira, a radical feminist and disliked males, blaming them for most of society’s past ills and Offred’s Mother. Offred has flashbacks of her mother’s feminist acts, her mother would gather with other feminists and burn pornography magazines. â€Å"But there were some women burning books, that’s what she was really there for† This portrays Atwood ‘s background on a high level as she has created characters based on radical feminists who were around at the time. Another area that influenced Atwood was the Victorian era and how women were treated in it. The Victorian ways and Gilead are very similar. Women were confined to a domestic homelife and if they were to journey outside, would need to be accompanied by another person. This is witnessed in ‘The Handmaid’s Tale’. Offred is accompanied by another Handmaid when doing daily routines like shopping. â€Å"We aren’t allowed to go there except in twos. This is supposed to be for our protection† Also in the Victorian era, women had no rights and pregnancy was compulsory. This is just like the Handmaids role in Gilead, meaning Atwood has taken great influence from this. During the 1980’s when the Handmaid’s Tale was written there was an increase in small religious groups, especially in the USA. The Promise Keeper groups were common at that time. Members had a massive restoration of the biblical way of life. They were committed to God, purity and building strong families as seen in the regime of Gilead. A remaining factor of this regime is the reason it was introduced because of environmental factors obstructing reproduction. AIDS, still births and miscarriages were widespread, hence why Gilead was introduced. When Atwood wrote this the ozone layer was an immense worry. Atwood portrayed her influences to their extremes with her dystopian. Orwell’s influences are completely different to Atwoods, because his novel was written nearly twenty years before Atwoods. In 1948 the Second World War had just ended leaving the promised improvement of a better lifestyle forgotten about. This brought about communists, socialist, poor housing and food rationing, forming a poverty stricken land. This can be seen in ‘1984’ as food quality is poor and only slightly improved by the addition of Victory products. ‘Victory’ produce gin, coffee and cigarettes along with others. They are second rate war products available in London and unfortunately it was the best you could receive being a party member. â€Å"The lifts that never worked, the cold water, the gritty soap, the cigarettes that came to pieces, the food with its strange evil tastes. † The largest influence can be witnessed to come from Joseph Stalin. He was based in Russia and introduced the ‘Five year plans’. The plans brought industry under state control, they decided what and how much would be produced and often unrealistic targets would be set. The first plan started in 1928 and the third finished in 1941 due to world war two. The similarity between this and the novel ‘1984’ is the conditions that Stalin’s workers had to suffer. As in ‘1984’ Stalin was often referred to by the positive euphanism of ‘Uncle Joe’ just like Orwell’s ‘Big Brother’. To the younger workers he was a protecting man, as an Uncle would be and they saw no harm in the way he treated his workers. However with the propaganda which bombarded the workers to work harder, such as labour camps, workers soon developed illness and failed to meet targets. Another similarity is that in Big Brother’s regime, disappearences were very common and unquestioned. Stalin often ordered the abolishment of workers. As seen here in ‘1984’, there is a deffinate link with Orwell’s influences and the story line. â€Å"Syme had vanished. A morning came, and he was missing from work: a few thoughtless peopple commented on his absense† Orwell was correct to an extent with his prediction of the future as a 20th century Stalin would be Saddem Hussein, because this man’s regime is similar to Oceania. His country Iraq suffered catastrophic declines in living standards causing mass poverty. This happened because the regime lent so much money it created high debt. However the borrowed money was used to finance activities such as gross corruption, invasion and human rights violations. In conclusion, both novels share themes of totalitarianism, loss of identity and survelliance to an extreme. Language plays an important part in ‘The Handmaids Tale’ and ‘1984’, it is seen as a means of control within their regime. Both authors develop similar technics by the means of allusions, slogans, euphemisms and categorisation. However, they have very different outcomes as Atwood uses religious beliefs where as Orwell conveys war-approved language, also the nature in which it is used is different. The author’s narrative styles differ in context and basic structure. Orwell sticks with war outcomes of poverty and sickness in his semantic fields too. However Atwood uses non-human nature, the body and feritility, the opposite to Orwell. The novels do become similar when ‘1984’ is at the Golden Country as Orwell’s language developes metaphorically. Conformity is portrayed in the day structure of Atwood’s novel and part one of Orwell’s. Resistance increases for both the main characters in both novels, ‘The Handmaids Tale’ at night and ‘1984’ in parts two. The novels structures are different too, as ‘1984’ is in parts each representing a different story line development. ‘The Handmaids Tale’ is in sections containing passage of time unlike ‘1984’, which has no sense of time present in its structure. The author’s influences play a massive part on the dystopian environment. Orwell was influenced by war, poverty and regimes, which is highly reflected in his novel. Margaret Atwood reflects feminism into her novel as her background contains strong feminist movements and she even portrays this within the characters Offred’s mother and Moira. The novels are very different in context of dystopian environments though they contain similarities. The authors have no similarities in the influences of their novels. This is what alters their views, the time difference that the novels were written in. However, language and structure has a great impact on the environment of the novels and the dystopian writing of the texts. Word count: 3184Bibliography Yorke Notes: The Handmaids Tale 1984 Critical perspective on The Handmaids Tale: http://www. babesinspace. net/report/reports/2000-03-17. html Critical perspectives on 1984: Class handouts. The total word count for this essay is 3,184 words.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Free Essays on Mark Twain

â€Å"It is noble to be good; it is still nobler to teach others to be good- and less trouble.† – Mark Twain Mark Twain (1835-1910), was the literary alias of Samuel Langhorne Clemens, considered to be one of the founding authors of American fiction. Mark Twain did not only write novels, but travel narratives, short stories, , and essays. Considered to be one of the greatest humorists in American literature, his works about living on the Mississippi river include The Adventure of Tom Sawyer, Life on the Mississippi, and the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. In writing this paper I intend to inform as well as prove Mark Twain’s impact on our culture as a whole, and his influence on American Literature as we know it. Mark Twain was born on November 30, 1835, in Florida, Missouri. In 1839 when he was only four years old, Mark’s family moved a short ways to Hannibal, Missouri, which was at the time a small village along the Mississippi river. It was there that young Mark witnessed first hand the excitement of the colorful steamboats docked at the town dwarf. From these boats came comedians, singers, gamblers, swindlers, slave traders, and all of the other river travelers that the Mississippi had to offer. Mark Twain gained his first literary experience when he went to work for a printing firm in Hannibal after his father died in debt in 1847. While writing for the Hannibal Journal Mark contributed reports, poems, and sketches. What is remarkable is that working for the newspaper was Mark’s only literary training, because he did not receive any formal schooling. In 1853 Twain left Hannibal, and spent the next four years of his life traveling the eastern part of the country, working at printing shops as he went to support himself. He enjoyed the river so much that in 1857 Mark Twain became a riverboat captain. It was while working in this profession that Mark was exposed to all the people that the river had to of... Free Essays on Mark Twain Free Essays on Mark Twain Analysis of Mark Twain and Social Criticism in ‘Huckleberry Finn’ and ‘Tom Sawyer’ In Mark Twain’s two major works, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, and its sequel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, he develops and displays humor by concealing such humor within deeper, darker modes, ultimately producing a satire of the region in which he lived. Examined within this paper are the methods that Twain uses to conceal his satire within the above two novels. The majority of his points are made using humor, but he also takes advantage of the use of southwestern dialect and Huck Finn’s childlike innocence. Much of the content of the two novels involves the region in which Twain lived as well as certain places or events in his lifetime. The aspects of his past that lead to his writing style as well as his life on the Mississippi is discussed as far as is relevant to support the thesis. The information gathered to research the satirical aspect of Twain’s writing is primarily in the form of books. The research revealed his novels were deeply influenced by Twain’s past. His nature causes him to write in the manner he does. In his past, people tried to stifle his creative mind, and as a result his works are have their most important meanings hidden below the surface. This tendency is almost instinctive. In conclusion, this entire paper may violate Twain’s notice in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, in that it attempts to find a motive, a moral, and a plot in the narrative; and it may lead its author to be subject to prosecution, banishment, and/or shooting. However, the novel is perhaps the best of it’s kind, and even in it’s warning it suggests a deeper meaning to the entire book. But like the warning, if one reads the book and accepts it at face value, they will miss out on Twain’s intentions. â€Å"There are several kinds of stories, but only one difficult kind- the humorous...† - Mark Twain In M... Free Essays on Mark Twain â€Å"It is noble to be good; it is still nobler to teach others to be good- and less trouble.† – Mark Twain Mark Twain (1835-1910), was the literary alias of Samuel Langhorne Clemens, considered to be one of the founding authors of American fiction. Mark Twain did not only write novels, but travel narratives, short stories, , and essays. Considered to be one of the greatest humorists in American literature, his works about living on the Mississippi river include The Adventure of Tom Sawyer, Life on the Mississippi, and the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. In writing this paper I intend to inform as well as prove Mark Twain’s impact on our culture as a whole, and his influence on American Literature as we know it. Mark Twain was born on November 30, 1835, in Florida, Missouri. In 1839 when he was only four years old, Mark’s family moved a short ways to Hannibal, Missouri, which was at the time a small village along the Mississippi river. It was there that young Mark witnessed first hand the excitement of the colorful steamboats docked at the town dwarf. From these boats came comedians, singers, gamblers, swindlers, slave traders, and all of the other river travelers that the Mississippi had to offer. Mark Twain gained his first literary experience when he went to work for a printing firm in Hannibal after his father died in debt in 1847. While writing for the Hannibal Journal Mark contributed reports, poems, and sketches. What is remarkable is that working for the newspaper was Mark’s only literary training, because he did not receive any formal schooling. In 1853 Twain left Hannibal, and spent the next four years of his life traveling the eastern part of the country, working at printing shops as he went to support himself. He enjoyed the river so much that in 1857 Mark Twain became a riverboat captain. It was while working in this profession that Mark was exposed to all the people that the river had to of... Free Essays on Mark Twain Mark Twain Twain, Mark (1835-1910), was the pen name of Samuel Langhorne Clemens, one of the major authors of American fiction. Twain is also considered the greatest humorist in American literature. Twain's varied works include novels, travel narratives, short stories, sketches, and essays. His writings about the Mississippi River, such as The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Life on the Mississippi, and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, have been especially popular among modern readers. Early life Boyhood. Mark Twain was born on Nov. 30, 1835, in Florida, Missouri. In 1839, his family moved to Hannibal, Missouri, a village on the Mississippi River. Here the young Twain experienced the excitement of the colorful steamboats that docked at the town wharf, bringing comedians, singers, gamblers, swindlers, slave dealers, and assorted other river travelers. Twain also gained his first experience in a print shop in Hannibal. After his father died in debt in 1847, Twain went to work for a newspaper and printing firm. In 1851, he began assisting his older brother Orion in the production of a newspaper, the Hannibal Journal. Twain contributed reports, poems, and humorous sketches to the Journal for several years. Like many American authors of his day, Twain had little formal education. Instead of attending high school and college, he gained his education in print shops and newspaper offices. Travels. In 1853, Twain left Hannibal, displaying the yearning for travel that he would experience throughout his life. He stayed briefly in cities such as St. Louis, New York City, Philadelphia, and Cincinnati, working for low wages in print shops. He then traveled to Keokuk, Iowa, to assist his brother with more printing business. In 1857, Twain made plans to travel to South America, and in April of that year, he started down the Mississippi River toward New Orleans. At this point, he made a decision with important consequences for his l...

Monday, October 21, 2019

A Cure For The Ongoing Epidemic Professor Ramos Blog

A Cure For The Ongoing Epidemic Figure 1 Homelessness is an ever-growing issue worldwide.   It affects a broad range of diverse individuals.   Homelessness can lead to or be caused by addiction, abuse, poverty, and imprisonment.   As a result, it is important to find and implement solutions to diminish the consequences of homelessness.   There are many solutions that would make a major impact in the homeless crisis.   These solutions include, rapid re-housing, permanent supportive housing, shelters and transitional housing, increasing income and employment opportunities, and preventing homelessness (National Alliance to End Homelessness (NAEH)).   Although these solutions are incredibly impactful to ending homelessness, the most effective, and the solution that incorporates almost all other solutions, would be fixing the problem of unaffordable housing.   In California alone, there are currently 129,921 homeless people one any given night (NAEH). According to the National Alliance to End Homelessness, the lack of affordable housing and low income is the prime cause of homelessness in America. Some other major causes of homelessness are health issues, survivors of domestic violence who are trying to escape their abuser, and minority groups who experience racial inequality (NAEH). The issue of homelessness may seem daunting and impossible to fix but there are many solutions that could at least improve homelessness. Some of the other leading causes are financial instability due to low income, lack of affordable health care, domestic abuse, mental illness, and addiction (National Coalition for the Homeless). Financial instability can be caused not only by a lack of employment opportunities but also by most of the aforementioned causes, such as addiction.   Healthcare is a big issue, since quality insurance is most often very pricey.   For example, one vial of insulin costs $250 without insurance (Tsai).   Combine that with the price of needles, cleaning materials, the cost of health insurance, living expenses, car payments and insurance, gas money, a family to feed, and all to pay for with a low-income job.   Domestic abuse, whether it be from parents, spouses, or guardians, drives people to run away.   This especially puts teens at risk for homelessness.   Ã‚  Mental illness can make it hard to keep jobs, thus leading to financial instability, which then can lead to homelessness.   And finally, addiction takes over an individual’s life and goals.   Being addicted to a substance makes it incredibly difficult to hold a job, provide for family members, pay bills, eat, and can also create mental and physical health issues. So, let’s talk about how housing would be one of the major solutions for nearly all of these issues.   Alpha Project’s â€Å"rapid re-housing† program connects people to a home and services, such as rental assistance and security deposits (Alpha Project), swiftly through providing short-length rental help and services (NAEH).   Rapid re-housing helps people get housing quickly, promotes self-sufficiency, and ultimately keep people housed.   It is also less expensive than shelters and transitional housing.   â€Å"Rapid re-housing assistance is offered without preconditions - like employment, income, absence of criminal record, or sobriety - and the resources and services provided are tailored to the unique needs of the household† (United States Interagency Council on Homelessness). Research has shown that people who have been beneficiaries of rapid re-housing are homeless for shorter lengths of time (NAEH). â€Å"The Department of Housing and Urban Development indicates the effectiveness of the Housing First model to aid the problem of homelessness, which emphasizes rapidly rehousing the homeless† (Dittmeier et al. 449). The enactment of rapid-rehousing is founded on the evidence that supports that families and people who spend more time in permanent housing have better outcomes (NAEH). Other types of housing that is beneficial to the homeless are shelters and transitional homes. However, there is usually limited space in these institutions. Depending on the situation and the individual, there are five different levels of assistance for rapid re-housing. Levels can be determined using the National Alliance to End Homelessness Center for Capacity Building’s Rapid Re-Housing Triage Tool. Level One is for households who require minimal support to get and keep housing. Level Two is for households who require routine assistance. Level Three is for households who require longer time periods and/or more concentrated assistance. Level Four is for households who require longer time periods of assistance and intensive assistance. Finally, Level Five is for households who require longer time periods of assistance, more rigorous services, and staff with more professional training. The second tier of the housing solution is permanent supportive housing, particularly for the extremely vulnerable. It combines housing with supportive services and case management (NAEH). The services help build tenancy and independent living skills and link people with community-based health care, treatment and employment services (NAEH). Since 2007, permanent housing has helped decrease chronic homelessness by 26% (NAEH). Permanent supportive housing is a largely supported as a vital resource to avert unneeded institutional stays and helps people with disabilities have stable lives within the community (Signer 18). Investing in permanent housing programs makes a great impact in improving and ending chronic homelessness. The next solution for ending homelessness is increasing employment and income. This can be done in many ways. For example, creating more jobs, raising minimum wage, income support programs such as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), and unemployment compensation (NAEH). TANF is incredibly useful for families struggling financially. However, people need to be educated on how to use such services. The Workforce Investment and Opportunity Act (WIOA) is an effort to help under-skilled entry-level workers through funding subsidized employment and programs (NAEH). Some cities, for example, Fortworth, Texas, have gotten creative with their solution for the issue of available employment opportunities by having homeless individuals clean up the streets in exchange for payment or housing. This not only helps increase money for homeless people and also raises incentive to clean streets and keep their jobs, but also positively effects the community and environment of the earth we all live on. In the words of Asa Don Brown, â€Å"Homelessness is not a choice, but rather a journey that many find themselves in.† When you think of the homeless families, teenagers, children, women, men, humans- think if you were any one of them. Wouldn’t you want someone to take a chance on you to help you get back on your feet? Works Cited Dittmeier, Kerry, et al. â€Å"Perceptions of Homelessness: Do Generational Age Groups and Gender Matter?† College Student Journal, vol. 52, no. 4, Winter 2018, pp. 441-451. EBSCOhost. Figure 1: Sandie. â€Å"Homeless in Southern Utah- Pretty Sad.† Homeless in Southern Utah- Pretty Sad, 20 Feb. 2011, 63angel.blogspot.com/2011/02/homeless-in-southern-utah-pretty-sad.html. Guarnieri, Grace. â€Å"This Texas City Is One of Several across the Nation to Employ the Homeless and Clean up Litter on the Streets.†Newsweek, 21 Jan. 2018, â€Å"Home.†Alpha Project Serving the Homeless of San Diego, alphaproject.org/programs/rapid-rehousing. â€Å"Homelessness in America.†National Coalition for the Homeless, nationalhomeless.org/about-homelessness/. â€Å"Homelessness Quotes (153 Quotes).† Goodreads, Goodreads, goodreads.com/quotes/tag/homelessness. Peabody, Zanto. â€Å"First-Person Stories of Homelessness.†Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles Times, 12 Oct. 1999, www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1999-oct-12-me-21378-story.html. Signer, Mira E. â€Å"The Case for Permanent Supportive Housing for Persons with Serious Mental Illness: Improved Lives, Reduced Costs, and Compliance with Federal Law.†Developments in Mental Health Law, vol. 35, no. 4, Winter 2016, pp. 17–23.EBSCOhost â€Å"Solutions.†National Alliance to End Homelessness, endhomelessness.org/ending-homelessness/solutions/. Szeintuch, Shmulik. â€Å"Homelessness Prevention Policy: A Case Study.† Social Policy Administration, vol. 51, no. 7, Dec. 2017, pp. 1135-1155. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/spol.12228. Tsai, Allison. â€Å"The Rising Cost of Insulin.†Diabetes Forecast, diabetesforecast.org/2016/mar-apr/rising-costs-insulin.html. Yousey, Amelia, and Rhucha Samudra. â€Å"Defining Homelessness in the Rural United States.† Online Journal of Rural Research Policy, vol. 13, no. 4, Oct. 2018, pp. 1-24. EBSCOhost, doi:10.4148/1936-0487.1094.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Cosmos Episode 7 Viewing Worksheet - Teacher Resources

Cosmos Episode 7 Viewing Worksheet - Teacher Resources The seventh episode of the first season of Foxs science-based television series Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey hosted by Neil deGrasse Tyson makes an excellent teaching tool in several different disciplines. The episode, entitled The Clean Room deals with many different science topics (like geology and radiometric dating) as well as good lab technique (minimizing contamination of samples and repeating experiments) and also public health and creation of policies. Not only does it dive into the great science of these subjects, but also the politics and ethics behind scientific research. No matter if you are showing the video as a treat for the class or as a way to reinforce lessons or units you are studying, assessment of the understanding of the ideas in the show is important. Use the questions below to help with your evaluation. They can be copy and pasted into a worksheet and tweaked as necessary to fit your needs. Cosmos Episode 7 Worksheet   Name:___________________    Directions: Answer the questions as you watch episode 7 of Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey    1.   What is happening to the Earth at its very beginnings?    2. What date for the beginning of the Earth did James Ussher give based on his study of the Bible?    3.   What type of life was dominant in the Precambrian Time?    4.   Why is figuring out the age of the Earth by counting the layers of rock not accurate?    5. Between what two planets do we find the leftover â€Å"brick and mortar† from making the Earth?    6. What stable element does Uranium break down into after about 10 transformations?    7.   What happened to the rocks that were around at the birth of the Earth?    8. On what famous project did Clare Patterson and his wife work together?    9.   What kind of crystals did Harrison Brown ask Clare Patterson to work on?    10. What conclusion did Clare Patterson come to about why his repeated experiments gave wildly different data about lead?    11. What did Clare Patterson need to build before he could completely rule out lead contamination in his sample?    12. Who are two of the scientists Clare Patterson thanks as he waits for his sample to finish in the spectrometer?    13. What was the true age of the Earth found to be and who was the first person he told?    14. Who is the Roman god of lead?    15. What modern holiday did Saturnalia turn into?    16. What is the â€Å"bad† side of the god Saturn similar to?    17. Why is lead poisonous to humans?    18. Why did Thomas Midgley and Charles Kettering add lead to gasoline?    19. Why was Dr. Kehoe hired by GM?    20. What organization gave Clare Patterson the grant to study the amount of lead in the ocean?    21. How did Clare Patterson conclude the oceans were being contaminated by leaded gasoline?    22. When the petroleum corporations took away their funding for Patterson’s research, who stepped in to fund him?    23. What did Patterson find in the polar ice?    24. How long did Patterson have to fight before lead was banned from gasoline?    25. How much did lead poisoning in children drop after lead was banned?

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Email Policy at Johnson & Dresser Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Email Policy at Johnson & Dresser - Essay Example It is legal under some circumstances and illegal in other words. It is necessary to for the managers to maintain the business ethics within business environment. So in this case it becomes legal when the employers at the time of recruitment or employment clear the privacy policy to its employees. They should know how much privacy they can enjoy under the privacy policy set by the company. Their consent in reading mails should be made the criteria of employment. So that they would know that all the emails could be read by the manager for any assistance. It is illegal when the policies regarding reading mails secretly or having full access to employee email messages is hidden from the workers. Or when they are told that they can enjoy full privacy in this regard but indeed they keep on eye on their emails. There could be number of reasons varying from organization to organization. It mainly depends upon the policies and nature of company. So mostly this option is availed by the companies to keep track of their employee’s performance regarding their jobs. For example they can check whether the sales officer is dealing with the customer in the suitable manner or doing his job with full sense of responsibility or not. Employee can use the email for work purpose only and can’t use it for personal use while at work. It is right of the company to keep track of it to reduce extra expenses. The negative consequence could be reduction in the productivity of the company. Only those employee would feel uncomfortable with this policy who really not too much in work. They doesn’t rely on handwork and are not that much fair with their jobs. But of course this policy offers bit strict working environment so employees would try to be careful for this they would work in pressure all the time which can result in less productive outcome. As far as my opinion is concerned, I think the appropriate policy is that employer should keep track of emails and

Friday, October 18, 2019

Sharpe's Budget Problem Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Sharpe's Budget Problem - Essay Example The cash budget should include the all the costs likely to be paid and cash to be received (Crosson, Power, and Needles, 2011). The direct cost are the expenses incurable which are directly associated with the revenue sources, and/or can be directly apportioned to that source of the revenue with a high degree of accuracy. The cash budget should be monitored closely so as to establish how closely the company has adhered to meeting its objectives with respects to its finances (Hilton, Thorne and Lang field-Smith, 2006). In order to achieve this, it is expedient to prepare a variance report. A variance statement will contrasts the expected cash outflow and expenditure. ... It will be imprudent for a company to fail to produce a cash budget. In this case, the sales of the company are increasing and collections are made at a rate of 10% of sales during the month, 60% of the sales during the month presiding the month of sales, and 30% in the second month following the sale. Rent and other expenditures are made each month and do not vary. Tax is paid only in the month of March and June, 2004 at the rate of $ 22,500 during the period under consideration. Workings NOTE 1 cash collections Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sales 90,000 120,000 135,000 240,000 300,000 270,000 225,000 150,000 Cash sales 10% of sales 9,000 12,000 13,500 24,000 30,000 27,000 22,500 15,000 Notes – 2 collections Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug sales 220,000 175,000 90,000 120,000 135,000 240,000 300,000 270,000 225,000 150,000 60% of sales 132,000 105,000 54,000 72,000 81,000 144,000 180,000 162,000 135,000 30% of sales 66,000 52,500 27,000 36,000 40,500 72,000 90,000 8 1,000 Total collections for the month 171,000 106,500 99,000 117,000 184,500 252,000 252,000 216,000 Notes – 3 purchases payments Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug sales 220,000 175,000 90,000 120,000 135,000 240,000 300,000 270,000 225,000 150,000 Purchases 60% 54,000 72,000 81,000 144,000 180,000 162,000 135,000 90,000 - - Payments 54,000 72,000 81,000 144,000 180,000 162,000 135,000 90,000 - Payment of notes payable of $ 200,000 Sharpe requires cash of $ 200,000 to pay notes payable. There are two scenarios in this case, the first case is where the not payable are paid without interest. In this case, the company has ample cash to repay the notes. The following is the cash budget after factoring in the notes payable at the end of July. The assumption that the

Nintendo WII CASE Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Nintendo WII CASE Study - Essay Example The analysis of the video game console depicts that the product has diverse marketing possibilities as it differs from one country to another. In Korea, the market was concentrated within the age group of 20years – 25 years and was comprised of predominantly female population. While in Japan, the target market was primarily male populace aged above 36 years (Lee & Et Al., â€Å"A Cross Sectional Market Segmentation of Online Game Industry using SOM†). Nintendo expects to widen the user base of the video games. Nintendo perceives that ‘Wii’ will be fun for all types of users irrespective of gender, age or ethnicity. The company says that it would target the non - users of the video game console and try to attract them in to the gaming world and do not aim to fight with Sony for the share of market (Gantayat, â€Å"Dragon Quest IX Q & A†). The SWOT analysis captures the strengths and weaknesses of the company along with opportunities and threats of the industry. The strengths include less expensive software and hardware along with the unique hardware motion detection where as the weaknesses of Wii of Nintendo are that only limited number of software could be selected and also there is a liability for joystick. The company can find opportunity in new users that include adults and seniors and also through deeper penetration in the European and Middle – Eastern markets. The major threat of the product is that the software developers are not satisfied with the reducing profit and also there are lack of software selection and sophistication with the games (Zimbio, â€Å"SWOT: Strength Weakness Opportunity Thread of Gaming Industry†). There is no doubt that the Nintendo Wii has taken the gaming world by storm since its launch. The major competitors of the Wii from Nintendo have been the Play Station series from Sony (PS2 and PS3) and the Microsoft XBox360. The differences in the marketing strategies of Nintendo and

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Singapores Energy Diplomacy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Singapores Energy Diplomacy - Essay Example Being an economy with almost no natural resources, the country Singapore is more exposed to the threat of rising energy cost . This threat actually affects the national economy in a huge way. For that reason it is very crucial for the country to take necessary steps so that the energy efficiency is increased. In the month of October, 2002, at the Energy Forum, the Deputy Minister of Trade, Industry and Foreign Affairs of Singapore, Mr. Raymond Lim mentioned that the country would be projecting a three-phase response to combat the energy challenges . The first step, which was proposed by the deputy minister, stated that the industry base of the country should be strengthened by the up gradation and improvement of the oil-refining sector of the country . The first statement also focused on the development of the supporting functions for these oil refineries. The supporting components include promotion of e-business, proper supply-chain and logistic management, a development in the fiel d of information science and promotion of international oil trading. In his second recommendation the deputy minister stressed on the fact that for a country like Singapore, fighting against the energy crisis is important to develop a hub for alternative energy sources . The high-end alternative energy plans, which Mr. Lim proposed, were fuel cell technology and hydrogen economy. These technologies include test-bedding, manufacturing of the system for producing fuel cells and eventually marketing these products.The third and the final proposition focused on the liberalization and the improvement of energy efficiency of the country and also optimizing the usage of the un-renewable energy sources.

AC PROJECT Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

AC PROJECT - Essay Example We have set a budget of $ 132000 for software expenses. The cost includes an allowance that will cater for unexpected costs during writing of different software. Travel expenses will amount to $ 71500. This amount will meet the travel demands of our team as we seek to participate actively in the growth of this company. To cover all the depreciation costs, we will require $255,000. Due to the complexity of the tasks being performed by this department, various unplanned costs are bound to be incurred. To cater for such miscellaneous costs, the department will require $ 110000. We hope that our budget demands will be looked into so that we can have a successful business year this year. The figure below shows an outline of the proposed budget. Our company has been very successful in the recent years. The massive financial support to the sales department has been of great importance. This year, our budgetary expenses are bound to reduce by a small percentage. This is because most companies have already invested in communication software and hence there are few numbers of potential customers. We expect to maintain our past growth rate despite this challenge. To achieve this, we will lower our sales revenue expenses to $4, 500, 000. This amount will be sufficient to help us reach the available customers in the market. The salaries for our staff will amount to a total of 360000. This amount will help us maintain our competent employees and hire more qualified employees if need arises. The nature of our duties demands a lot of travelling. The travel expenses are estimated to amount to $210,500. Compared to the previous years, this amount has been lowered since the numbers of available customers has decreased. The total amount for the proposed budget is $507000. With this budget, we will be able to maintain our growth level and hence move the company to another level of success. The budget outline is presented below. Our division has enjoyed the continued

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Singapores Energy Diplomacy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Singapores Energy Diplomacy - Essay Example Being an economy with almost no natural resources, the country Singapore is more exposed to the threat of rising energy cost . This threat actually affects the national economy in a huge way. For that reason it is very crucial for the country to take necessary steps so that the energy efficiency is increased. In the month of October, 2002, at the Energy Forum, the Deputy Minister of Trade, Industry and Foreign Affairs of Singapore, Mr. Raymond Lim mentioned that the country would be projecting a three-phase response to combat the energy challenges . The first step, which was proposed by the deputy minister, stated that the industry base of the country should be strengthened by the up gradation and improvement of the oil-refining sector of the country . The first statement also focused on the development of the supporting functions for these oil refineries. The supporting components include promotion of e-business, proper supply-chain and logistic management, a development in the fiel d of information science and promotion of international oil trading. In his second recommendation the deputy minister stressed on the fact that for a country like Singapore, fighting against the energy crisis is important to develop a hub for alternative energy sources . The high-end alternative energy plans, which Mr. Lim proposed, were fuel cell technology and hydrogen economy. These technologies include test-bedding, manufacturing of the system for producing fuel cells and eventually marketing these products.The third and the final proposition focused on the liberalization and the improvement of energy efficiency of the country and also optimizing the usage of the un-renewable energy sources.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Communication journal Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Communication journal - Article Example The leader is also important in ensuring that that communication within the group is effective – that there are no elements of dictation from them or other group members. The leader also serves the important role of facilitating the process of designing and meeting objectives and the course of action, so as to get the response expected from the audience (LaFasto & Larson, 2001). b). Establishing an agenda on how to meet the goals of the group is also very important to the success of group presentation, as the agenda defines the clarity of the group’s goals. Through establishing the agenda, the group is able to narrow down to the areas that are important for the presentation and the expected results. Through the agenda on meeting goals: the leadership guides the actions and the preparations of the group, to ensure that they fall within the range, which counts towards the realization of the goals. Through establishing the agenda, the group gets a sense of direction, givin g preference to areas of priority and areas that should be addressed first. Through the agenda, the group is able to tie down all individual presentations into one whole, to ensure that there is coherence in meeting the set goals. Through establishing the agenda, unifying elements become evident, from the overall scheme and it helps develop the link between the different elements. From doing this, the entire group develops an understanding of the role to be played by each member – towards meeting goals, and that the individual roles blend together to form the desired discussion. Establishing the agenda guides group preparation, helps in giving rehearsals a sense order, and the links between introductions and transitions are established. Through the agenda, reflection is directed towards different aspects of presentation (LaFasto & Larson, 2001). c). Encouraging group members to express their opinions and to ask questions is very important, as the core aim of group work is to promote the development of a range of skills, including communication and interpersonal skills. Through encouraging the members to express their opinions and to ask questions, their input is captured, and their contribution towards the success of the group’s goals is guaranteed. Under ideal conditions, the group’s presentation should incorporate the input and the participation of each member, which can only be guaranteed through incorporating the opinions of the different members and addressing their questions, so that they do not weaken the entire presentation (LaFasto & Larson, 2001). d). Encouraging group members to know one another is somewhat important, as group presentation do not fully rely on the personal interaction existing between members. For instance, multinational congresses feature presentations, where different members of the presentation group have not met, but it is important that the boundaries of their presentation are clearly defined. However, know ing one another is important, as it can help in assigning different roles to members, responsibilities and presentation areas that are favored by the skills they posses. For instance, technical areas of the presentation are better presented by members who have background knowledge in technical concepts. However, the