Thursday, November 28, 2019

( Task 1) Source Evaluation Task Essays - Structure,

( Task 1) Source Evaluation Task 3W-28KIM, Do Hyung 011M111055-3 Source Evaluation of Title, Author Publisher The source, entitled "2024 Olympics: "Astonishing" omission of human rights in Host City Contract", was written by author unknown and was published in September 2015 in Amnesty International UK, a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights. Amnesty International is Nobel prize winning organization that works to support human rights around the globe. It has over a million members in 162 countries around the world. Purpose The article was probably written for a general audience, informing them that Host City Contract for 2024 Olympics lack human rights. This article is a primary source because it is published by a reputable organization and it also contains opinions of experts. The article criticize the IOC based on how it omitted human rights in Host City Contract of 2024 Olympics. The article urges the IOC to protect human rights in Olympics because that is what the Amnesty International does: publicize and putting pressure to up hold human rights. Accuracy The article does have evidences that shows how short the IOC's effort is to uphold the human rights in the Olympics. However other than one link from, the article does not contain any citation or state sources of information used. Also, the article could be biased, because the article was written by human rights organization and since the IOC made some efforts to uphold human rights, it would be subjective if the effort was enough or not. Context The article was written in 2015 and since the IOC made specific changes to the Host City Contract 2024 with regard to human rights, anti-corruption and sustainable development standards in February 2017, it is not relevant information anymore. The position on the topic seem common because the IOC has been criticized on its effort to uphold human rights by many different organizations. Evaluation The article strongly criticizes that the IOC lacks effort to uphold human rights in Host City Contract of 2024 Olympics, and it specifically states in which part the IOC needs to put more effort on. However, it does not have any citation or sources for the 2 quotations it contains. I, personally, am planning on writing an essay that argues the IOC does not successfully promote its core values. The article itself does supports my idea, but it is no longer valid since the IOC did show some effort by making changes in Host City Contract 2024 regarding human rights and anti-corruption. I am not going to use this information, because it does not support my idea anymore.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Satanic Leaf-Tailed Gecko Facts

Satanic Leaf-Tailed Gecko Facts The satanic leaf-tailed gecko (Uroplatus phantasticus), is a mild-mannered reptile that, despite its name, prefers to take peaceful naps in the forests of Madagascar. It has evolved an extreme method of camouflage: becoming a dead leaf. Fast Facts: Satanic Leaf-Tailed Gecko Scientific Name: Uroplatus phantasticusCommon Name: Satanic leaf-tailed geckoBasic Animal Group: ReptileSize: 2.5–3.5 inchesWeight: 0.35–1 ounceLifespan: 3–5 yearsDiet:  CarnivoreHabitat: Mountainous rainforests of eastern MadagascarConservation Status: Least Concern Description The satanic leaf-tailed gecko is one of 13 recognized species belonging to the gekkonid lizard genus Uroplatus, which were discovered on the island of Madagascar in the 17th century. The 13 species are broken into several groups based, in part, on the vegetation they mimic. U. phantasticus belongs in the group named U. ebenaui, which is comprised of three members, including U. malama and U. ebenaui: all three look like dead leaves. All leaf-tailed geckos have long, flat bodies with triangular heads. The satanic leaf-tailed gecko is mottled brown, gray, tan, or orange in color, the same shade as the decaying leaves in its natural environment. The geckos body is curved like the edge of a leaf, and its skin is marked with lines that mimic a leafs veins. But the most remarkable accessory in the leaf-tailed geckos disguise is undoubtedly its tail: The gecko has the longest and widest tail of all the U. ebenaui group. The lizards tail is not only shaped and colored like a leaf, but it also bears notches, frills, and imperfections to more closely resemble a dead leaf that has been gnawed on by insects. Like the rest of its group, the satanic leaf-tailed gecko is small in size compared to other Uroplatus groups, measuring between 2.5 to 3.5 inches long including its tail. reptiles4all/Getty Images Habitat and Distribution The satanic leaf-tailed gecko is found only in the mountainous rain forests in the southern two-thirds of eastern Madagascar, a large island nation just off the southeast coast of Africa. It is found at the base of trees disguising itself as leaf litter and up to about 6 feet up the trunk of a tree. Well known for its unique wildlife, Madagascars forests are home to lemurs and fossas and hissing cockroaches, in addition to being the only known habitat of the worlds satanic leaf-tailed geckos. Diet and Behavior The satanic leaf-tailed gecko rests all day, but as soon as the sun sets, its on the prowl for a meal. Its large, lidless eyes are made for spotting prey in the darkness. Like other lizards, this gecko is believed to feed on anything it can catch and fit in its mouth, from crickets to spiders. Little research has been done on satanic leaf-tailed geckos in their native environment, though, so we cant know for sure what else they consume. The satanic leaf-tailed gecko doesnt rely on passive camouflage to protect itself. It also behaves like a leaf when resting. The gecko sleeps with its body flattened against a tree trunk or branch, head down and leafy tail up. If needed, it twists its body to accentuate the leaf-like edges and help it blend in. It has a limited ability to change color, and when camouflage fails, it flicks its tail upwards, rears back its head, opens its mouth exposing a brilliant orange-red interior and sometimes even emits a loud distress call. reptiles4all/Getty Images Reproduction and Offspring In their native Madagascar, the start of the rainy season also marks the beginning of the gecko breeding season. When sexually mature, the male satanic leaf-tailed gecko has a bulge at the base of its tail, while the female does not. The female is oviparous, meaning she lays eggs and the young complete development outside of her body. The mother gecko lays her clutch, two or three spherical eggs, in the leaf litter on the ground or within dead leaves on a plant. This enables the young to remain hidden when they emerge about 95 days later. She may bear two or three clutches a year. Little is known about this secretive animal, but it is believed that the mother leaves the eggs to hatch and make it on their own. Conservation Status and Threats Though currently listed as a species of Least Concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, this unusual lizard may soon be at risk. Madagascars forests are being degraded at an alarming rate. Exotic pet enthusiasts also create a high demand for collecting and exporting the species, which is currently illegal but may continue in low numbers. Sources Giant leaf-tailed gecko. Smithsonian.  Glaw, Frank, and Miguel Vences. A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar Including Mammals and Freshwater Fish. Cologne, Germany: Verlag, 2007.Madagascar Leaf Tailed Gecko Care Sheet and Information. Western New York Herpetological Society, 2001–2002.Ratsoavina, F., et al. Uroplatus phantasticus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: e.T172906A6939382, 2011.Ratsoavina, Fanomezana Mihaja, et al. A New Leaf Tailed Gecko Species from Northern Madagascar with a Preliminary Assessment of Molecular and Morphological Variability in the Uroplatus Ebenaui Group. Zootaxa 3022.1 (2011): 39–57. Print.Spiess, Petra. Natures Dead Leaves and Pez Dispensers: Genus Uroplatus (Flat-tailed geckos).

Thursday, November 21, 2019

SWOT Analysis for Possible Ventures. Airbus Joint Venture with Boeing Essay

SWOT Analysis for Possible Ventures. Airbus Joint Venture with Boeing - Essay Example It is evident from the study that in the joint venture, Airbus has strengths that would make it stand out from any possible competition and posed threats. Firstly Airbus has advanced technology in aircraft manufacturing as compared to Boeing, its technologies such as fly-by-wire, joy stick control and laser guided riveter would make Airbus to have a bigger share of the joint venture. Secondly, the manufacturing of Very Large Commercial Transport (VLCT) would take place in Europe where the company has well-established markets. Although the company stands to benefit from the opportunities presented by the joint venture there are some threats that the company needs to consider. Competition with Boeing will make Airbus to cut its prices and this will affect its profit margins. From the venture, the company will be forced to expose its technology and manufacturing techniques to Boeing. In the joint venture, Boeing will have better opportunities than its rival company Airbus will. However, the two companies expect almost similar opportunities. Successful production and marketing of the VLCT will create deals that would increase the company’s capacity to market its other models. Due to the current condition of saturated airports and need for expansion there will be a ready demand for the proposed VLCT. Currently Boeing controls about 60% of the aircraft market and it hope to increase its niche from the venture. The initial cost of producing a VLCT stands at $5-$20 billion, which the company hopes to raise over the next 4-10 years. From the projected demand of 500 units for $150 - $250 million, Airbus expects to create a deal worth 1.25 trillion dollars, which is a remarkable return on investment. Boeing has many strengths that will enable it to benefit from the possible opportunities, unlike it rivals Boeing has a high control over its suppliers with some being sole-suppliers. This makes Boeing to stand out as a well-established aircraft manufacturer. Boeing ha s enjoyed a long-standing agreement in the production of military aircrafts and this has enabled the company to generate a lot of profit. Although Boeing is a strong company, the company has some weakness. Firstly, Boeing may lose its market share if it is unable to produce the VLCT economically. The company has a low production capacity and therefore it may not handle the extended demand adequately. These weaknesses create competition threat that the company faces from its rival company Airbus. Airbus owns or has the rights to most of the critical technologies required in the production of VLCT and therefore Boeing is threatened by possible exploitation. Part 3; Analysis of Airbus Standalone initiative Although the VLCT is a proposed joint venture,

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

The solar energy industry with a focus on the SunPower Corporation Essay

The solar energy industry with a focus on the SunPower Corporation - Essay Example In every 44 seconds the amount of the solar energy that is intercepted by the Earth while rotating on its axis is greater than the total amount of energy used worldwide in a whole year (HD Solar, 2008). According to a January, 2007 issue of the Financial Times, â€Å"While the evidence for the need of an alternative source of energy is mounting, it is encouraging to note that millions are invested in tackling climate change through the use of clean energy. Calculations suggest that global expenditure on curbing the effects of climate change could be $1,000 billion within five years† (Tang, K. & Yeoh, R., 2007). However, the currently scenario of the solar power industry is presents a picture that is far from encouraging. The depression waves of the global financial downturn are being felt by the solar industry too. The ongoing credit crunch and the frozen credit markets have hampered the solar industry, which is presently struggling due to the lack of funding options for the development of new projects and that has resulted in driving up the supplies and sent prices on the solar panels falling. The SunPower Corporation is a solar products and services company that was founded in 1985. The company is headquartered at San Jose, California, USA and employs a total of 5,400 employees. The company is involved in the designing, manufacturing and the marketing of high-performance solar thermal power technologies. The company offers solar power products such as the solar panels solar cells and the inverters that are based on the proprietary technologies and processes for a wide plethora of residential, commercial and as well as the power plant purposes. In addition to these services the company also offers services as in energy efficiency which includes project management, recommendations on energy audits and technology and equipment retrofits services catering

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Economic Development in Kenya Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Economic Development in Kenya - Assignment Example It will also lead to the digitization of the Kenyan education system, where every pupil in Kenya will receive the same quality of education be it in private or public schools and finally Kenyans technological knowledge will increase immensely, and in the future Kenyans might produce one of the best IT innovative gurus, such as Bill Gates or Steve Jobs. Therefore, with this project in mind, the hypothesis that would be tested by the RCT is whether the laptop project will improve the education quality in pupils from rural Kenya and make it at par with that of students learning in urban private schools. The randomized control trials, in this case, will be identifying two schools one from rural Kenya, where there are minimal facilities and learning is a very cumbersome task for its pupils (treatment group). The other school will be from urban Kenya, where facilities are in plenty, and the learning institution has everything it needs to make learning a sweet and enjoyable experience for its students, (control group). The target population will be all pupils joining class one in both schools, where the students in the rural school, will be provided with laptops that have been loaded with adequate learning material and a well-defined syllabus. The same syllabus will be the one student from the urban school will be studying as well, the rural school will also have teachers that will help the students understand how to use and retrieve the information they want from the laptops. After the RCT is implemented, a series of tests will be administered to both the treatment group and the contro l group, where our intended outcome is that the treatment group will perform equally as the control group if not better. Our hypothesis is whether the laptop project will improve the education quality in pupils from rural Kenya and make it at par with that  of students learning in urban private schools.  

Friday, November 15, 2019

Adverse Event Management in Chemotherapy Cancer Patients

Adverse Event Management in Chemotherapy Cancer Patients Results RESULTS In this prospective interventional study conducted at the KMCH hospital during a period of December 2013 to July 2014, a total of 63 cancer patients who received chemotherapy from the comprehensive cancer center of the hospital were included in the study. ASSESSMENT OF PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS The demographic details among the subjects revealed that most of the cancer cases fall in the age group of 40-59, having 52.38% patients in this age group followed by 34.92% patients in the age group of ≠¥ 60 years old [Table 2 Figure 1]. Out of this, the majority of patients receiving chemotherapy were females, 55.55% whereas males were only 44.44%. [Table 3 Figure 2] Evaluation of the subjects based on their education level revealed that out of the total population 66.66% falls in the category of educated while 33.33% were uneducated. [Table 4 Figure 3] On analysing the subjects based on their diagnosis, gastrointestinal (GI) cancers (33.33%) were found to be the most common diagnosis followed by breast cancer (17.46%). [Table 5 Figure 4] Assessment of comorbidities revealed hypertension (22.22%) as the most common comorbidity seen amongst our subjects, closely followed by diabetes mellitus (19.04%). [Table 6 Figure 5] Among the different types of adverse effects documented the predominant types consisted of fatigue (84.12%) and insomnia (68.25%). [Table 7 Figure 6] ASSESSMENT OF IMPROVEMENT IN PATIENT’S QoL Study population: 63 Analysis: Friedman’s Test This analysis was carried out for evaluating the change in QoL of the patients as part of the adverse event management given from pre-intervention assessment to first and second review of the patients. We found that adverse event management had a significant effect on the QoL of the patients with regard to global health status, functional scales, symptom scales and symptom and limitation scales (P Global Health Status/QoL: The global health status showed a significant change with improvement from 1.02 in the pre-intervention assessment to 2.04 and 2.94 in the first and second reviews respectively. This change was statistically significant with a P-value of 0.0001. Functional Scales: The assessment of functional scales showed that the physical functioning of the cancer patients improved with time. During the pre-intervention assessment, the mean rank was 1.24 which then increased to 2.29 2.48 over the next 2 reviews respectively. The improvement was significant with the P-value of 0.0003. The scale of role functioning also varied clearly with time, it improved from 1.34 during the initial assessment to 2.16 and 2.50 at follow-up visits. This change was statistically significant with the P-value of .0001. The emotional functioning scale increased from an initial value of 1.54 in the initial assessment to 2.07 and 2.39 at the subsequent visits respectively. This improvement was statistically significant with a P-value of 0.0002. Also, the social functioning showed a significant improvement in the score from an initial value of 1.41 at the initial assessment to 2.17 and 2.42 over the follow up period of first and second review respectively. This change was statistically significant with a P-value of 0.0001. Symptom Scales: On assessing the symptom scales, symptom in the form of fatigue decreased over the study period from an initial value of 2.86 at the initial assessment to 1.78 and 1.37 in the subsequent reviews. This change was statistically significant with a P-value of 0.0001. The symptom scale of nausea and vomiting also showed a significant improvement from 2.60 at pre-intervention assessment to 1.95 and 1.45 in the follow up period which was statistically significant with a P-value of 0.0003. The pain symptomatology decreased from a value of 2.52 in the initial assessment to 1.87 and 1.61 during the follow up period. This was a statistically significant improvement with a P-value of 0.0003. The symptom scale of dyspnoea also decreased from the initial value of 2.37 to 1.93 in the first review and 1.71 during the second review, which was a statistically significant change with a P-value of 0.0001. As far as symptomatology in the form of insomnia is concerned, it decreased from the initial value of 2.67 in the pre-intervention assessment to 1.83 and 1.49 in the subsequent reviews with a statistically significant change which gives a P-value of 0.0002. When symptom in the form of appetite loss was assessed, it showed a marked decrease from a mean rank of 2.52 at the initial assessment to 1.85 and 1.63 during the first and second reviews respectively. This improvement was statistically significant with the P-value 0.0001. The symptom scale of constipation improved over the study period from an initial mean of 2.37 to 1.88 and 1.75 in the subsequent follow ups of first and second review which was a statistically significant change with a P-value of 0.0001 while diarrhoea also decreased from a mean rank of 2.22 at initial assessment to 1.93 in the first review and 1.85 during the second review. This change was statistically significant with a P-value of 0.0002. Symptom and Limitation Scales: Limited normal eating or drinking habits of the patients also decreased from a mean rank of 2.72 in the pre-intervention assessment to a value of 1.94 and 1.33 in the successive assessments. This improvement was statistically significant with a P-value of 0.0003. The symptom in the form of sore mouth improved over the study period from an initial value of 2.17 to 1.95 and 1.87 in the next 2 consecutive reviews which was a statistically significant change with a P-value of 0.0004. Limitation in the activities due to adverse effects also showed a significant improvement from an initial value of 2.60 to 1.97 and 1.44 in the following 2 reviews respectively. This progress was statistically significant with a P-value of 0.0003. Knowledge about infection and its prevention showed a noteworthy improvement in the study period. The value decreased from 2.98 in the initial assessment to 1.72 and 1.30 in the subsequent reviews which was a statistically significant change with a P-value of 0.0002. Difficulty in managing symptoms also showed a drastic improvement from an initial value of 2.96 in the pre-intervention assessment to 1.73 and 1.31 in the next 2 reviews with a statistically significant change at a P-value of 0.0001. ASSESSMENT OF PATIENT’S QoL AGAINST AGE Study Population: 63 Analysis: One-way ANOVA The patient’s QoL against age was assessed in order to determine whether age has any influence on the adverse event management and we found that age has significant role in global health status, functional scales as well as on symptom scale and symptom and limitation scales (P Global Health Status: In our study, the global health status was found to have a significant improvement among the age group of 18-39 during reviews 1 (P=0.035) and 2 (P=0.003). Functional Scales: Physical functioning was at its higher side in the age group of 18-39 from the initial assessment (P=0.043) and the functioning was significantly improved and maintained during the successive reviews (P= 0.0001). Role functioning was found to be higher in the age group of 40-59 from the pre-intervention assessment (P=0.004) which was found to have improved during the first review (P=0.0001) and this improvement was sustained over the second review (P=0.0001) as well. At the same time, emotional functioning showed a significant improvement during the first review (P=0.0003) among this age group which was further maintained in the subsequent review. Social functioning also showed a significant change among the population above 59 years by the second review (P=0.0002). Symptom Scales: Symptom in the form of nausea and vomiting was seen mostly in the age group of 40-59 years. It showed a significant reduction from the initial assessment (P=0.023) to first review (P=0.011) and the improvement was upheld in the second review. The normal eating or drinking habits were also significantly reduced (P=0.018) highly among this group of patients which was considered to be secondary to the high level of nausea and vomiting experienced. The symptom was further improved during the subsequent follow ups but the change was not statistically significant. Fatigue was most commonly seen among the ≠¥ 60 age group and it showed a significant reduction from the initial assessment (P=0.026) to first review (P=0.039) and second review (P=0.0002). Symptom and Limitation Scales: Limitation in the activities due to adverse effects showed a significantly high reduction in the patients of 18-39 age group during their second review (P=0.026). And, in the knowledge regarding infection, its prevention and management, patients among the 40-59 age group also showed a statistically significant improvement during their second review (P=0.022). In addition, management of symptoms based on the instructions given had also shown a significant improvement among this group of patients from review 1 (P=0.047) to review 2 (P=0.004). ASSESSMENT OF PATIENT’S QoL AGAINST COMORBIDITIES Study Population: 63 Analysis: Independent t-test Among our study population, 25 patients presented with comorbidities. The purpose of this analysis was to check whether comorbidity plays any role in adherence management and we found that it only has a significant effect on the normal eating or drinking habits as well as on awareness about infection and management of symptoms (P Patients with comorbidities showed a significantly normal eating or drinking habits during the baseline assessment (P=0.002) and was improved further during the study period. In the knowledge regarding infection, its prevention and management, the patients without comorbidities showed a significant improvement during review 1 (P=0.009) which was sustained in review 2 (P=0.014) as well. Also, this category of patients showed a significant ability to manage the symptoms with the instructions given which was found to be improved during their first review (0.007). ASSESSMENT OF PATIENT’S QoL AGAINST EDUCATION Study Population: 63 Analysis: Independent t-test This analysis was performed to determine whether education has a role in the adverse event management and we found that patients with education shows significant improvement in physical functioning, role functioning, fatigue, appetite loss, limitation of activities and awareness about infection (P In educated patients, physical functioning was higher from the baseline assessment (P=0.015) which was further maintained throughout the first review (P=0.030) and second review. Role functioning was also higher and maintained among this group from the initial assessment (P=0.008). The symptom fatigue also shown a remarkable improvement by second review (P=0.006) alongside knowledge about infection (P=0.039). Appetite loss shown a reduction during first review (P=0.010) which was further improved and maintained throughout the follow up period while limitation in activities were considerably low from the baseline assessment (0.032) which was sustained throughout the study period. [Table 11] EVALUATION OF THE ADVERSE EVENT MANAGEMENT The evaluation is done using results of quality of life assessment as well as through patient interviews during their reviews. The patients were asked about the usefulness of the adverse event management and tools provided and they were also asked to report the tips they had used. Among our subjects, the symptom of nausea was found among 39 patients [Table 12] and vomiting was seen among 32 patients [Table 13]. They had shown a considerable improvement throughout the study period and most of them were able to report at least one tip they had used. The tip that had been reported by most patients were â€Å"If the smell of food bothers you, let the food cool down before you eat it† and also the patients started taking the anti-emetics prescribed even on days they were experiencing less severe nausea or vomiting. Out of the study population 48 were found to experience fatigue and the symptom was improved and the improvement was sustained throughout the study period. â€Å"Listen to your body, rest when you tired† and â€Å"do activities that are most important† were the tips used by most of the patients [Table 14]. Appetite loss was another symptom experienced by 32 of the subjects which further improved during the study period. â€Å"Drink soups that are easy to swallow† was the tip mostly reported, closely followed by â€Å"watch television while you eat†. [Table 15] About 24 of the patients experienced constipation [Table 16] while 15 had diarrhoea [Table 17]. The symptoms were improved during the follow up period and the patients were able to report the tips they had used and found beneficial. Most of the patients tried including more fruits and vegetables into the diet and also as instructed when the symptom was severe they consulted the physician and taken the medication. Among the study population 12 had mouth sores which improved over time and most of them had tried the mouth wash recipe and drinking through straw as per the tips provided to them [Table 18]. As far as the identification, prevention and management of infection was concerned, most of the study population was found to be lacking any knowledge in these, which then increased considerably during the study period with the information provided regarding the infection [Table 19].

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Hates Irrational Justification :: essays research papers

Hate’s Irrational Justification On Sept. 6, 2001, Richard Baumhammers, â€Å"a 36 year-old immigration lawyer, received five death sentences plus 112  ½ to 225 years in prison for a mass shooting rampage in April 2000 that killed his Jewish neighbor, two Asian men, and Indian man and a black man.† (â€Å"For the Record†) This incident was classified as a â€Å"hate crime† (a crime motivated solely on hate). Hatred is an extreme, on-going outburst powerful resentment and dislike of something or someone. How can something so powerful, such as hate, fulfill the minds of so many people? The odd thing about it, also, is that, hate does not cloud the minds of certain people only, the range of people is too great to be able to even start classifying them. Hate, like human feeling, is not rational but it has its reasons. Hate is irrational. Hate is created when people lose their ability to properly reason with anyone or with themselves for that matter. Hate is felt when someone feels trapped, unable to find another way of finding a solution to something that does not sit well in their minds. The Ku Klux Klan, who openly demonstrate hate towards African Americans, for example was compiled of middle to lower class white citizens that felt like their families, jobs, and lives were being threatened by the increase of African Americans living in the United States (Office Copy: Hate). As a result of this feeling of hopelessness and fear, they lynched and attacked African Americans for many years. Even till this day they have not completely seized harassment. Many people will agree that this is not a suitable solution for anything. Nothing was done to peacefully solve this conflict or mediate, instead, the KKK resorted to violence and open hatred. Another example is the Neo-nazi formation in the U.S. (Intel ligence report magazine) The Nazi party headed by Hitler in the nineteen thirties and forties hated Jews and anyone not part of the, so-called â€Å"Aryan nation† because they also felt threatened. As a so-called, â€Å"solution† to their insecurities they persecuted Jews. So why would Americans adopt this now, in the twenty-first century? According to William Pierce. Leader of the National Alliance, â€Å"†¦American people permitting the Jews to run their government and use American strength to advance Jews’ interests†¦ †(Published Interview) What Jewish interests? Pierce fails to say exactly what. No sense is being made.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

African American Identity Essay

It was a hot August day as sweat beat down on Thomas Jefferson Brown. He had been working in the field 2 hours before the hot sun had made its presence known. He looked back over the drying field, hoping that this crop would provide for his family better than last years crop had. Thomas watched his oldest son, Nathan, who worked down one row of the field while staring intently at the cotton plants as he picked the cotton. Nathan was a very inquisitive young man who had just yesterday asked his father what it was like being a slave for Mr. Walter Johnson. When his father had told him that in a lot of ways life was so much easier than now, Nathan had given him a look that allowed Thomas to know that his son could not understand. How could he understand? Nathan had not grown up a slave and seen that while it was extremely difficult, there was a feeling of stability to life then. Yes, Thomas Jefferson Brown had endured the beatings and yes he had watched as his Mother and eventually his sisters had been sexually assaulted, but how do you tell a young man such as Nathan that such was the way of life; it was to be expected, along with the comfort of knowing where your next meal was going to come from. Since Tomas had been freed after the great war, He s and his family had endured much more than that; having watched the lynching of two of his brothers and numerous friends. They were the lucky ones though, Thomas thought, while looking up at the fiery ball of heat known as the sun. They did not have to endure other hardships; their suffering was over. Yes it was hard for Nathan to know that life was indeed easier as a slave than a freed man, and maybe, just maybe, things would change during Nathan’s lifetime. Thomas Jefferson Brown wiped his brow once more and continued on picking the cotton? Even though the civil war ended in 1865, African Americans still faced an uphill battle to obtain rights that were afforded other Americans. This was in spite of the fact that 24 African American soldiers earned our Nations highest honor; the Congressional Medal of Honor, during the Civil War. Even with the passing of the 13th Amendment in 1865 banning slavery and the 14th Amendment giving African Americans citizenship and equal protection under the law, there were still so many other issues that would deprive African Americans of their lawful rights, such as having the first African American elected into the 41st Congress in 1869 continuing through 1901 with the 57th congress, which had no African Americans. This trend would continue until the election of 1929 before another African American was elected to congress. In 1873 the Supreme Court decision ruled that the 14th-Amendment guarantee of equal protection of the laws extended only to federal civil rights, thus removing southern states from the duty to protect the civil rights of African Americans, but it was just not their rights that were taken; but their lives as well. Between 1882 and the end of 1900, 1751 African Americans and 1105 white Americans were lynched for trying to further the African American cause (National). Given all of this discrimination and violence, it is hard to imagine that anyone would be willing to further the African American cause, but many stood ready to not only give of themselves, but perhaps even to give their life for this noble cause. African American writers were presented with these problems of equality and self esteem, and yet have truly transformed and continue to support a freed people, to obtain all of their rights. What follows is from three writers who each in his own way contributed mightily to the African American cause. They are W. E. B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, and Glen Loury. First, we have W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt) Dubois, who was born on February 23, 1868 in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. Dubois was one of the most influential black leaders of the first half of the 20th Century. Dubois shared in the founding of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, or NAACP, in 1909. He served as its director of research and editor of its magazine Crisis until 1934. He was the first African American to graduate from Harvard University, which he accomplished in 1896. At first, Dubois thought that African Americans could be freed through the Social Sciences, but quickly became disillusioned with this idea and began to believe that freedoms could only come about by agitation and protest(Chew). Dubois recognized that the African American’s of his day faced many problems, not the least of which were of the life threatening variety. After his disillusionment with helping African Americans through the social sciences, Dubois thought that African Americans needed to develop their own culture, which was definitely more American than African. Dubois enjoyed the unique African American culture, particularly that of the Negro spiritual songs. Dubois thought that African Americans should not give in to what white Americans expectations were of African Americans, but to continue to develop as a people. Dubois wrote that all people regardless of their culture, heritage, sex, should be treated as equals. Dubois also thought that African Americans should not worry about competing with the world as a group, but that they should join together to help each other. He eventually was forced to leave the United States because the government considered Dubois an agent of the Soviet Union. That is why he immigrated to Ghana, first obtaining Ghana citizenship, joined the communist party and eventually died there in 1963. Dubois was there for all future African Americans to follow his example. Dubois founding of the NAACP led to many victories for the rights of all Americans, most of which he never saw. Next we have Marcus Mosiah Garvey, who was born in Jamaica on 17 August 1887. Mr. Garvey is best remembered as a pivotal figure in the struggle for racial equality, not just in the United States but throughout the world as well. He founded the UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association) and African Communities League in 1914 while still in Jamaica, and also championed the ‘back to Africa’ movement of the 1920s. Of the Africans who departed, Garvey thought, some had left independently while others were brutally removed for economic gain and exploitation. Garvey perceived that the main problems facing not only African Americans, but Africans as well was that they must first go back to Africa and free their African brothers before moving on to other parts of the world. Through the organizations that Garvey had formed (UNIA and ACL), he reasoned that until Africa is free and redeemed, not only in name but in reality, no one would be free, Black or White. Garvey reasoned that no matter what one’s race was we are all bound together by the Creator, which is Spirit. The Creator has a purpose for everyone and that purpose did not include being made a slave or subject to anyone for that matter. While Dubois and Garvey did not see eye to eye on the issues involving African Americans, Garvey did align himself closely with Dr Robert Love, and Dr Loves teachings that a race could progress no further than the dignity and esteem of their women and younger girls. Garvey and Love thought that the best way to plant the seeds of dignity and self-esteem would be through the woman and younger girl. Last, we have Glen Loury, who was born in 1948. Mr. Loury is a professor of economics at Boston University while also being a consultant to the Federal Trade Commission. Mr. Loury has devoted a major portion of his career to the study of race and public policy. He is the author of ‘On the Need for Moral Leadership in the Black Community’, ‘Responsibility and Race’, ‘Impact of Affirmative Action on Equal Opportunity: A New Look’, and most recently ‘A New American Dilemma’. Mr. Loury saw many problems facing not only African American, but also all Americans, including the civil rights policies of 1960-1985, which seemed to have been based on equality of outcome rather than on equality of opportunity. Mr. Loury also thought that affirmative action policies created backlash. Loury maintained that all Americans should have equal rights with none being given favorable treatment over any other. Loury reasoned that it is hard to justify denying admission to an elite college to anyone who struggled to be able to pass the admissions exam; while admitting a member of a designated minority group, who did not work near as hard to earn his score and is only admitted based on his minority status. Such actions build resentment towards these policies and are only heightened when defenders of the policies claim that to question these policies is to engage in a racist act. Mr. Loury contends that giving preferential treatment with no sound explanation only led to more heightened tensions and is a very grievous error on the part of those who merely wish to be advocates of affirmative action. Loury did see, that there was a proper use of affirmative action, such as on police forces around the country that had a significant percentage of African American citizens and yet none on the police force. These Authors present their own conclusions and reasoning’s for what happened to the African Americans previous to, and of their own time. These writers used the influences of other African Americans and were also pioneers themselves. All of these writers believed in equality for everyone and thus did share at least one common goal. In Mr. Dubois we have a writer and scholar who originally thought that through a study of Social Sciences and doing what was right could African Americans receive their rights, and yet Dubois was able to refocus and remain firm in his opinions of helping each other and thus able to help not only the African American’s of his generation, but the ones to follow as well. Mr. Dubois saw all of the problems besetting African Americans and knew that they must unite, working together, to build a culture of their own, that would allow all African Americans to have a better life. Mr. Garvey on the other hand, perceived that until the rights and freedoms were restored in the entire African continent, Africans elsewhere would always be treated as second-class citizens. Garvey along with Dr Robert Love, thought that it was through the African women, especially the younger women, that Africans had a chance to make a difference in providing a better future. Mr. Loury saw problems that came about because of the Civil Rights movement, and that African Americans should not merely rely on being a minority to get ahead in life, but instead grab the opportunity that was before them so as not to create a political backlash. Each of these writers have stood their ground for what they believe in, and our world we live in today is better for it. Each of these writers, in their own time, helped frame not just African Americans lives but has truly transformed and continues to support a freed people, obtain all, of their rights. Works Cited Chew, Robin â€Å"W. E. B. Dubois Sociologist, Author & Civil Rights Leader 1868 ? 1963†³ February 26, 2005. 6 Feb 2006 Dr Coony, Mark â€Å"Race and Affirmative Action† 6 Feb 2006 Du Bois, W. E. B. â€Å"Of our Spiritual Strivings. † Cultural Conversations The Presence of the Past. Ed Stephen Dilks, et al. Boston: Bedford/St Martin, 2001. 131-145 Garvey, Marcus â€Å"Motive of the NAACP Exposed† Cultural Conversations The Presence of the Past. Ed Stephen Dilks, et al. Boston: Bedford/St Martin, 2001. 153-154 Loury, Glenn. â€Å"Free at Last? A Personal Perspective on Race ad Identity in America. † Cultural Conversations The Presence of the Past. Ed Stephen Dilks, et al. Boston: Bedford/St Martin, 2001. 173-180 â€Å"Marcus Garvey Biography† November 2000, K. W. Spence-Lewis Consultant Researcher Community Health and Planning Plant Science. â€Å"The Making of African American Identity VOL II 1863-1917† National Humanities Center 6 Feb 06 Bibliography Chew, Robin â€Å"W. E. B. Dubois Sociologist, Author & Civil Rights Leader 1868 ? 1963† February 26, 2005. 6 Feb 2006 Dr Coony, Mark â€Å"Race and Affirmative Action† 6 Feb 2006 Du Bois, W. E. B. â€Å"Of our Spiritual Strivings. † Cultural Conversations The Presence of the Past. Ed Stephen Dilks, et al. Boston: Bedford/St Martin, 2001. 131-145 Garvey, Marcus â€Å"Motive of the NAACP Exposed† Cultural Conversations The Presence of the Past. Ed Stephen Dilks, et al. Boston: Bedford/St Martin, 2001. 153-154 Loury, Glenn. â€Å"Free at Last? A Personal Perspective on Race ad Identity in America. † Cultural Conversations The Presence of the Past. Ed Stephen Dilks, et al. Boston: Bedford/St Martin, 2001. 173-180 â€Å"Marcus Garvey Biography† November 2000, K. W. Spence-Lewis Consultant Researcher Community Health and Planning Plant Science. â€Å"The Making of African American Identity VOL II 1863-1917† National Humanities Center 6 Feb 06.

Friday, November 8, 2019

How to Make Distilled Water

How to Make Distilled Water Distilled water is purified water produced by condensing steam or water vapor from impure water, such as well water, seawater, tap water, snow, streams, or even plants or damp rock. You can distill water to further purify the water you have, to make drinking water for emergencies, or to obtain water while on camping trips. There are several methods for making distilled water, so you can save yourself some money and distill it yourself rather than buying it at the store. Which of several methods to use to distill water depends on the resources you have available and whether you are distilling impure water or have to get water from the air or plants. Distill Water on Your Stove, Grill or Campfire You can make distilled water over a stove, grill, or campfire quite easily. You need a large container of water, a smaller collection container that either floats in the first container or can be propped up above the water level, a rounded or pointed lid that fits the big container  (turned upside down so that when the steam condenses, the water drips into your smaller container), and some ice. Here is a recommended material list: 5-gallon stainless steel or aluminum potRounded lid for the potGlass or metal bowl that floats inside the potIce cubesHot pads Fill the large pot partly full of water.Set the collection bowl in the pot. The plan is to collect water dripping from the center of the inverted pan lid, so choose the size of the bowl to make sure the distilled water wont just drip back into the main pot.Set the pot lid upside down on the pot. When you heat the water, water vapor will rise up to the lid, condense into droplets, and fall into your bowl.Turn on the heat for the pan. The water needs to get very hot, but its OK if it doesnt boil.Put ice cubes on top of the lid of the pot. The cold will help to condense the steam in the pot into liquid water.When complete, turn off the heat and use care to remove the bowl of distilled water. Store distilled water in a clean, preferably sterile container (dishwasher clean or else immersed in boiling water). Use a container intended for long-term storage of water because other containers may have contaminants that would leach into your water over time, undoing all your work to get pure water. Collect Water in an Outside Container A similar method is to heat water in a pot but collect the distilled water in an outside container. You can be as creative as you like with your setup for this. Just be sure to collect the distilled water and not the pot water. One option is to use a funnel over the boiling water container that is connected to the collection bottle with aquarium tubing. For the funnel to drain into your collection bottle, you want to empty the tubing at a lower level than the funnel. Otherwise, the method is the same. The advantages include safety (you dont need to wait for the pot to cool to get your water) and reduced risk of contamination from the source water. Contamination is not a big concern when youre purifying rain or tap water but may be more of a consideration if youre trying to make nonpotable water safe enough to drink. Distill Water From Rain or Snow Rain and snow are two forms of naturally distilled water. Water evaporates from the ocean, lakes, rivers, and the land and condenses in the atmosphere to fall as precipitation. Unless you live in a highly polluted area, the water is pure and safe to drink. (Do not collect rainwater that comes off an asphalt shingle roof through the gutters for this procedure.) Collect rain or snow in a clean container. Allow a day or so for any sediment to fall to the bottom of the bowl. In most cases, you can pour off the clean water and drink it as-is; however, you can include additional filtration steps, such as running the water through a coffee filter or boiling it. Water keeps best if its refrigerated, but you can keep it indefinitely in a clean, sealed container at room temperature, too. Use Home Distillation Kits Unless youre collecting rain or snow, water distillation costs money because it uses fuel or electricity to heat the source water. Its cheaper to buy bottled distilled water than it is to make it on your stove. However, if you use a home distiller, you can make distilled water more cheaply than you can buy it. Home distillation kits range in price from about $100 to several hundred dollars. If youre making distilled water for drinking, the less expensive kits are fine. More expensive kits are used for lab work or for processing large volumes of water to supply water needs for an entire house. Distill Water From Plants or Mud While out camping or in serious emergency situations, you can distill water from virtually any source of water. If you understand the basic principle, you likely can imagine many potential setups. Heres an example of a method used to extract water from desert plants. Note that this is a time-consuming process. Green plantsPlastic wrapCoffee can or other clean containerSmall rocks Dig a hole in the ground in a sunny location.Place the coffee can in the center of the bottom of the hole to collect the water.Pile up damp plants in the hole around the coffee can.Cover the hole with a piece of plastic wrap. You can secure it using rocks or dirt. Ideally, you want to seal the plastic so no moisture escapes. The greenhouse effect  will trap heat inside the plastic, aiding in the evaporation of the water.Place a pebble in the center of the plastic wrap to create a small depression. As water evaporates, the vapor will condense on the plastic and fall where you created the depression, dripping into the can. You can add fresh plants to keep the process going. Avoid using poisonous plants containing volatile toxins because they will contaminate your water. Cacti and ferns are good choices, where they are available. Ferns are edible, too.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Meaning of Baron Through Medieval Times and After

Meaning of Baron Through Medieval Times and After In the Middle Ages, baron was a title of honor given to any nobleman who pledged his loyalty and service to a superior in return for land that he could pass on to his heirs. The monarch was usually the superior in question, although each baron could parcel out some of his land to subordinate barons. Read on the learn about the etymology of the term and how the title has changed over the centuries. The Origins of Baron The term baron is an Old French, or Old Frankish, a word that means man or servant. This Old French term derives from the Late Latin word, baro. Barons in Medieval Times Baron was a hereditary title that arose in the Middle Ages that was given men who offered his loyalty in exchange for land. Thus, barons usually possessed a fief. During this time period, there was no specific rank associated with the title. Barons existed in Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy and Spain. Decline of the Baron Title In France, King Louis XIV diminished the prestige of the baron title by making numerous men barons, thus cheapening the name.   In Germany, the equivalent of a baron was freiherr, or free lord. Freiherr at first connoted a dynastic status, but eventually, the more influential freiherrs  rebranded themselves as counts. Thus, the freiherr title came to mean a low class of nobility.   The baron title was abolished in Italy in 1945 and in Spain in 1812. Modern Usage Barons are still a term used by certain governments. Today a baron is a title of nobility ranking just below that of a viscount. In countries where there are no viscounts, a baron ranks just below a count.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

How did Hume reconcile the idea of a universal Standard of Taste with Essay

How did Hume reconcile the idea of a universal Standard of Taste with the diversity of actual taste that he observes What objec - Essay Example Since people have different ways of appreciating the beauty of visual arts, it is necessary on the part of the acedemic world to take a closer look on how â€Å"taste† can affect how each person will perceive the quality of visual arts. David Hume is one of the famous philosophers of Enlightenment1, 2. Specifically Hume has a unique way of expressing his own opinion with regards to the universal standard of taste. To give the readers a better understanding of this subject matter, this study will first discuss Hume’s idea with regards to the standard of taste. After analyzing how Hume was able to reconcile the idea of a universal standard of taste with the diversity of actual taste that he observed, this study will identify and thoroughly discussed several objections which may arise out of his arguments. Hume’s Idea with Regards to the Standard of Taste The standard of taste is heavily based on people’s nature. Given that a group of people share the same in terests, it means that they have the same standard of taste. When it comes to artworks, Hume argued that there will always be a group of people who will be contented and not contented with the quality of artwork they see in front of them and that only time can really tell whether or not the piece of artwork would still outstand other similar types of artistic crafts3, 4. In Hume’s writings on the standard of taste, he tackled the issue with regards to the essential differences between artistic â€Å"facts† and â€Å"artistic sentiments†5, 6, 7 In line with this, Hume mentioned that judgement based on sentiments does not contain the truth behind the real value of artworks. Given that each person’s artistic taste is totally different from that of another person, Hume’s argument that ‘judgement based on sentiments does not contain the truth behind the real value of artworks’ seems to be based on facts8. Since people’s judgement on artworks are mostly â€Å"subjective’ and based on â€Å"pleasure†9, 10, Hume took the position that most of the judgements based on taste are not only illogical but also ridiculous11, 12. According to Hume, the two (2) main sources of such sentiment is highly based on either the personal disposition of each person or the moral differences which may arise out of each person’s cultural differences13, 14. In line with this, Hume’s concept of personal disposition in the standard of taste means that each individual has their own taste or preferences when it comes to artistic works. On the other hand, Hume’s idea of moral differences in the standard of taste means that the moral beliefs of each person can significantly affect their aesthetic subjectivism when it comes to the process of judging a piece of artwork. With regards to the cultural differences of each person, Hume mentioned that each type of culture will have a unique set of customs that can affect the way people perceive the same piece of artwork15. For this reason, the presence of cultural differences alone should be considered as one of the most significant factor that can make a highly competitive judge to be prejudice when it comes to judging a good piece of artwork16. On top of these two (2) major factors that could affect each person’s judgement based on sentiments, Hume mentioned that each piece of artwork has its own unique beauty that can easily attract a group of people17, 18, 19. There are quite a lot of factors that can affect a person’

Friday, November 1, 2019

Cross Cultural Management and Its Relevance in Supporting Global Essay

Cross Cultural Management and Its Relevance in Supporting Global Business Operations - Essay Example From this discussion it is clear that culture and cultural identities affects interactions and human engagement with each other. People from the same culture feel more comfortable when grouped with others from a similar culture. This merging becomes more specific especially when money is involved. Same culture individuals consider partnership in the business world. However, when different cultures have to come together these people have to grow together to meet the organization goals. While growing together, these people face similar problems and have to agree on joint actions to defeat the problems. The more they solve the issues together, while embracing each others culture, the more it becomes a norm and system of rules that will later be local legislations that with practice will become the groups guiding principals. Cross-cultural management is thus the study of behavior of people from different cultures who have come together to meet a common goal. The study emphasizes on the m ain motivation factors like group dynamics, leadership structure and decision making practiced by such a mixed group.   This paper highlights that economic system is one aspect that has exposed cultures to elastic limits. Earlier, the economies were divided into first world, second world, and third world. First world economy had advanced free enterprise system, second world had centralized planning, and third world was more of a developing economy. Third world was built up by countries moving from agriculture economy to industrial economy. However, any global minded person knows that these dimensions have since changed. Many economies are mixed and many third world economies happen to have particular strengths that make them stand out.